‘月華’苦瓜果實發育期間之形態及生理變化

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作者: 郭純德;李堂察;蔡平里;Kuo, C. T.;Lee, T. C.;Tsai, P. L.
刊名: 宜蘭技術學報
期刊所屬國別:
出版年: 1999
關鍵字: 苦瓜;果實發育;生長分析;單S型曲線;更年性果實;Bitter gourd;Momordica charantia L cv moon shine;Fruit development;Growth analysis single sigmoid curve;Climateric fruit
摘要: '月華’苦瓜果實之生長,呈單S型曲線;嘉南地區春收苦瓜果實,於開花後6-15 天生長快速,其種子之快速生長期在花後11-18天,並於花後18天達最高值。以果重、果 長、果徑絕對生長速率下降部分回歸線延伸,並與代表花後天數之橫軸交點,估算其生理成 熟期,在花後20天左右。綠熟苦瓜之呼吸率及乙烯生成速度,均具有明顯之更年性高峰; 且果實之黃化,在呼吸更年上升期間同步地發生。因之,'月華'苦瓜應屬更年性果實。瓜果 發育過程中,其果實比重、果皮組織乾重比率、果腔內二氧化碳濃度與spermine含量漸減; 果腔內乙烯濃度、spermidine和putrescine含量則漸增;而ACC和MACC含量,則呈鐘形 般之先增後減,分別在花後12及18天達最高。The fruit growth of 'Moon Shine' bitter gourd, as measured by cumulative weight, length and diameter was shown as s single sigmoid curve. Fresh weight of seed reached their maximum values at 18 days after anthesis. The absolute growth rate of fruit length and width reached their maximum values at 8 days after anthesis, of fruit weight at 15 days after anthesis. The physiological maturity of fruit in spring in Chia-Nan area, Taiwan was at about 20 days after anthesis. Ethylene production and respiratory rate increased during the ripening of mature-green fruit. The time of increment in respiration rate was corresponded to furits yellowing. Judging from the above characteristics of fruit growth pattern, 'Moon Shine' bitter gourd is suggested as a climacteric fruit. The specific fravity of fruit, percentage of dry weight of seed, internal content of carbon dioxide in fruit cavity, and spermidine content in fruit decreased during bitter gourd fruit development. Whereas, the internal content of ethylend in fruit cavity spermidine and putrescine content in fruit tended to inecrease during fruit development. Meanwhile, ACC and MACC content in fruit rapidly increased and then decreased with the increment in mature stage of fruit, reached their maximum values at 12 and 18 days after anthesis, respectively.
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