改善番石榴果實貯藏品質之研究

字體大小:A- A A+

單位商業會員附件下載:
論文名稱: 改善番石榴果實貯藏品質之研究
研究生姓名: 魏梓訓
指導教授姓名: 林慧玲
出版年: 2013
學校名稱: 國立中興大學
系所名稱: 園藝學系所
關鍵字: 番石榴;貯藏;套袋;熱風;甲殼素;真空;包裝;guava;storage;bagging;hot-air;chitosan;vacuum;packaging
摘要: 本試驗探討採收前套袋材質及採收後熱風、甲殼素、真空及包裝等方式改善番石榴果實貯藏後品質之可能性。番石榴以白色紙袋套袋相較聚乙烯塑膠袋內襯白色舒果網套袋可延緩夏季果實成熟期約2週,且不論貯藏前後,果實硬度、總可溶性固形物、抗壞血酸含量、果皮顏色等品質,白色紙袋處理均優於聚乙烯塑膠袋內襯白色舒果網處理,顯示貯藏前之果實品質會影響到貯藏後之品質。 番石榴於貯藏前以55℃熱風處理2至4小時後,模擬1℃低溫檢疫14天,5℃貯運7天,25℃儲架壽命3天,發現番石榴以聚乙烯袋包裝後熱風處理較裸果熱風處理,能有效減少失重率及果實熱害,且能有效減緩果實軟化,貯藏後外觀以熱風2小時處理最好,但與未處理組之差異不顯著。‘帝王’番石榴以0.5%、1.0%、1.5%甲殼素披膜處理,處理後裸果進行貯藏會造成失重率及總可溶性固形物增加,甲殼素處理後再以聚乙烯塑膠袋內襯舒果網處理則可改善失重,結果以1%甲殼素處理加包裝外觀最好,但與未處理組差異不大。 ‘珍珠’番石榴能忍受0.4%氧氣,於25℃下7天未出現低氧傷害。番石榴真空包裝後進行貯藏能有效減緩果實軟化及寒害症狀,包含腐爛、果心水浸及維管束褐化,但果皮褐化嚴重且會產生少量無氧呼吸代謝產物。將真空方式改為以吸塵器將真空密封袋內抽成真空,可有效改善1℃低溫檢疫14天,5℃貯運7天,25℃儲架壽命3天後果皮褐化及減少無氧呼吸代謝產物,同時聚乙烯塑膠袋內襯舒果網經低溫貯藏回溫後果實腐爛及果心水浸較為嚴重。然而真空包裝後貯藏時間增加至1℃28天,5℃貯運7天,25℃櫥架3天,果實寒害症狀嚴重且失去商品價值,但真空包裝於回溫後破除真空之果實傷害較輕微。The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential improvement of postharvest fruit quality by using different preharvest bagging materials and postharvest treatments such as applied hot air, chitosan coating, vacuum and packaging method. Guava bagged with white paper showed that the maturity time was 2 weeks later than those bagged with polyethylene plastic containing inner expanded polystyrene net sleeve. Both before and after storage, the fruit quality including firmness, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid, and peel color was better when bagged with white paper compared to those treated with polyethylene plastic containing inner expanded polystyrene net sleeve. This result indicated that the fruit quality before storage can affect the fruit quality after storage. Results from the guava treated with hot air at 55℃ for 2 to 4 hours, and then stored at 1℃ for 14 days, then moved to 5℃ for 7 days, and finally, rewarmed at 25℃ for 3 days revealed that those packed with polyethylene plastic containing inner expanded polystyrene net sleeve had less weight loss, minor heat injury, and retarded fruit softening than those without packing bag under hot air. The best fruit appearance was observed when treated with hot air for 2 hours before storage; however, there is no significant difference compared with the untreated group. ‘Di-Wan’ guava treated with 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% chitosan caused weight loss and increased total soluble solids after storage. Guava treated with chitson and then packed by using polyethylene plastic with inner expanded polystyrene net sleeve showed improved weight loss. Coating treatment with 1% chitosan plus package had best fruit appearance, but not significantly different from untreated group. ‘Jen-Ju’ guava could tolerate 0.4% oxygen under 25 ℃ for 7 days with no appearent hypoxic injury. Guava storage after vacuum packaging can effectively reduce fruit softening and chilling injury symptoms such as decay, water-soaking core, and vascular browning. In contrast, the pericarp showed severe browning and produced a small amount of anaerobic respiration metabolites. Using vacuum cleaner to vacuum the bag before sealing can effectively improve the pericarp browning and reduce anaerobic respiration metabolites. Fruit packed by polyethylene plastic containing inner expanded polystyrene net sleeve stored at 1℃ for 14 days, then moved to 5℃ for 7 days and rewarmed at 25℃ for 3 days demonstrated serious chilling injury symptoms without commercial value in all treatments except for the vacuum-packed fruits with the vacuum-package removed before rewarming at 25℃ for 3 days, which showed minor injuries in fruits, but still with on commercial value.
資源連結: 前往查看