擎天鳳梨儲運後品質之改善

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論文名稱: 擎天鳳梨儲運後品質之改善
研究生姓名: 陳祈男
指導教授姓名: 葉德銘
出版年: 2007
學校名稱: 國立臺灣大學
系所名稱: 園藝學研究所
關鍵字: 內捲;壞疽;葉片老化;curling;necrosis;leaf senescence
摘要: 擎天鳳梨於儲運後經常發生葉片內捲與壞疽問題,嚴重影響品質。目前僅能以調控儲運溫度與天數來減緩問題發生,其中溫度可由冷藏貨櫃調控,但由於冷藏櫃較普通櫃貴上一倍,而天數受限於外銷地區距離與海關檢疫,至今仍缺乏一種簡單、有效且方便實施的方式以改善葉片內捲與壞疽。因此本研究探討花梗發育階段、化學藥劑噴施處理與儲運後環境調控對儲運後葉片品質與生理之影響,期能改善葉片內捲與壞疽問題,以提升臺灣觀賞鳳梨產業競爭力。 生殖株儲運後置於室內環境(7 μmol•m-2•s-1 PPF)大量產生葉片內捲與壞疽,但若置於栽培環境(正午光度150 μmol•m-2•s-1 PPF)可減緩葉片內捲與壞疽;營養株儲運無發生葉片內捲與壞疽,而將生殖株花梗除去,則葉片內捲可回復、減少葉片壞疽並維持Fv/Fm值於0.6;儲運前花梗噴施蒸散抑制劑並無法減緩葉片內捲與壞疽。長花梗(梗長46 cm)、中花梗(梗長36 cm)與短花梗(梗長16 cm)植株儲運後花梗皆能繼續抽高;中花梗與短花梗株於儲運結束後14天苞片彩度始增加,而短花梗株苞片色相角度則於儲運結束後14天始下降,並於儲後56天與長花梗株無顯著差異;長花梗與中花梗株儲運後有較多的內捲與壞疽葉片。故可用營養株或短花梗株15℃儲運14天或7天。 噴施一次蒸餾水處理於儲運後葉片內捲與壞疽增加、Fv/Fm值驟降,而噴施蒸散抑制劑無法減緩儲運後葉片內捲,此外噴施蔗糖無法減緩葉片壞疽且下位葉Fv/Fm值下降。噴施BA或GA3皆能減少葉片壞疽並減緩Fv/Fm值下降,於儲運結束後第14天,以BA處理之壞疽葉片數較GA3處理低、Fv/Fm值較高,其中以60 μM BA效果最佳。GA3處理於儲運結束後14天苞片亮度和彩度下降、色相角度上升,顯示苞片顏色黯淡、褪色並轉橙。故可於儲運前以60 μM BA全株噴施60 mL以改善葉片壞疽。 儲運後置於日夜溫30/25、25/20與20/15℃環境,隨著儲運後溫度愈低,葉片平均內捲程度較低、葉片水勢與儲水組織厚度則較大。儲後以高光(250 μmol•m-2•s-1 PPF)低濕(日夜相對濕度40/55% RH)處理於儲後第3天植株下半部葉片內捲數即達9片,而以高濕(80/95% RH)處理可減緩至6片。儲後以低光(10 μmol•m-2•s-1 PPF)處理於儲後第3天下半部葉片壞疽數即達6片,而以高光處理可減至4片,故可於儲後置於20/15℃、250 μmol•m-2•s-1 PPF及80%/95% RH環境以減少葉片內捲與壞疽。Leaf curling and necrosis often occur on Guzmania after dark transport, which diminish poststorage quality seriously. Commercially, the problems would be alleviated by controlling shipping temperature and duration. However, the prices of transportation with refrigeration container are twice as that of transportation with common container without temperature controlled. Information on effective and convenient method for improving leaf curling and necrosis is presently limited. Thus, the thesis was to determine the effects of scape length, chemicals spray and poststorage environments on poststorage leaf quality and physiology of Guzmania, to reduce poststorage leaf curling and necrosis and promote competitive advantages of ornamental bromeliad industry in Taiwan. Reproductive plant caused more curled and necrotic leaves in interior environments (7 μmol•m-2•s-1 PPF) after simulated dark transport as compared to vegetative plants. However, leaf curling and necrosis could be reduced in the growth environment with high irradiance (250 μmol•m-2•s-1 PPF at noon). Vegetative plants produced no curled and necrotic leaves after simulated dark transport. Removal of scape in reproductive plants reduced curled and necrotic leaves and the leaves maintained Fv/Fm value at 0.6. Sprayed with antitranspirant on scape before simulated dark transport did not reduce leaf curling and necrosis. Plants with long scape (46-cm length), middle scape (36-cm length) and short scape (16-cm length) could increase plant or scape height after simulated dark transport. Chroma of bracts in plants with middle or short scape began to rise after the end of simulated dark transport for 14 days. Hue angle of bracts in plant with short scape began to decrease after the end of simulated dark transport for 14 days. Plants with long or middle scapes caused more curled and necrotic leaves after simulated dark transport. Vegetative plants or reproductive plants with short scapes could be used for dark transport. Leaf curling and necrosis increased, and Fv/Fm value declined after simulated dark transport when sprayed with deionized water. Sprayed with antitranspirant or sucrose could not decrease leaf curling or necrosis, while sprays with BA or GA3 decreased leaf necrosis and delayed the decline of Fv/Fm value. Sprayed with BA resulted in fewer necrotic leaves and higher Fv/Fm value than GA3 after the end of simulated dark transport for 14 days. Sprayed with GA3 reduced bract lightness and chroma and increased hue angle after the end of simulated dark transport for 14 days, indicating that GA3 treatments resulted in faded bract color. Sprayed with 60 μM BA on whole plants for 60 mL before dark transport resulted in best poststorage performance. Poststorage at 20/15℃ reduced curled degree and increased leaf water potential and thickness of water storage tissue compared to those at 30/25℃. Poststorage at high PPF (250 μmol•m-2•s-1) and low relative humidity (40%/55% RH) increased curled leaves, while poststorage at high relative humidity (80%/95% RH) decreased them. Poststorage at low PPF (10 μmol•m-2•s-1) increased necrotic leaves, while poststorage at high PPF decreased them. In conclusion, poststorage at 20/15℃, 250 μmol•m-2•s-1 PPF and 80%/95% RH decreased leaf curling and necrosis.
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