採前套袋、浸泡S-ABA及採後熱處理對外銷椪柑果實品質之影響

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論文名稱: 採前套袋、浸泡S-ABA及採後熱處理對外銷椪柑果實品質之影響
研究生姓名: 林峻緯
指導教授姓名: 謝慶昌
出版年: 2011
學校名稱: 國立中興大學
系所名稱: 園藝學系所
關鍵字: 套袋;熱處理;椪柑;Bagging;S-ABA;Heat Treatment;Ponkan
摘要: 椪柑為台灣外銷日本主要水果之一,因需配合市場需求與低溫檢疫常需提早採收,但轉色不佳、品質不良且有腐爛之問題;再者,如能建立長期供貨系統,將可提高椪柑外銷數量。本試驗擬利用採前套袋與浸置S-ABA藥劑,配合檢疫後貯藏溫度控制,期能促進果實轉色;並評估長期貯藏之外銷流程,與果實熱處理應用之可能性 2010年試驗中,以銀色袋與黑色袋於採前4週與6週進行套袋,果實於11月18日採收時即可獲得轉色完全果實,而採前2週與4週進行套袋,再經過低溫檢疫、15℃貯運與25℃回溫後能獲得轉色完全之果實,以供應市場需求。以100ppm之S-ABA於採前4週、5週與6週噴施果實三次,採收時轉色率有略高於對照組但不顯著,經模擬外銷其轉色程度較對照組緩慢,之後兩者幾無差異。椪柑置於9℃以上能明顯轉色,而在15℃貯藏下轉色最快。椪柑長期貯藏之外銷流程應先進行低溫檢疫後再行貯藏較佳,但貯藏至6至8週後開始有較明顯之乾米與浮皮現象,而降低品質;若先進行貯藏後再行外銷低溫檢疫貯運流程,在第6週經低溫檢疫後回溫則會有明顯寒害腐爛情形發生,並隨貯藏時間延長而日益嚴重。 熱處理對接種綠黴病之果實腐爛控制,以溫湯處理53℃5分鐘與57℃10分鐘之效果明顯優於熱風處理與腐絕處理之果實,但57℃10分鐘有發生熱害之現象;熱風處理以35℃處理2日可控制腐爛,但其效果仍不盡理想且可能出現果蒂燙斑而影響外觀品質;但此條件實際應用在果實貯運期間之腐果控制,其效果不顯著,仍需進一步研究。Citrus ‘Pokon’ is one of the major fruit exports to Japan. Because the exports should meet the market demand and cold quarantine treatment, citrus have to be harvested early. The results of early harvest are poor color, poor quality, and decay. For the problem of poor color, this study uses S-ABA and different material bags at pre-harvest. The experience in 2009, 100 ppm S-ABA was used in citrus before 4, 5, and 6 weeks of pre-harvest, and after the cold quarantine treatment and transportation, the color of peel has no significant difference between S-ABA and control. The experience in 2010, the citrus would have qualified color of peel by applying silver bag in citrus before 4 weeks of pre-harvest or black bag before 6 weeks. If considering the cold quarantine treatment and transportation, bagging time of silver bag and black bag could be shorted to 2 weeks and black bag 4 weeks. The second part of this study is discussing the quality of citrus which effected by the order between cold quarantine treatment and long-term storage. If the citrus store for 6 weeks first, the citrus started decaying after the cold quarantine treatment. If the cold quarantine treatment before the long-term storage, the citrus appeared granulation and puffiness after 6 weeks since storage started. The last part is about controlling the decay of citrus that was infected with spores by hot-air treatment or hot water treatment. The hot-air treatment would let citrus stay in 35℃ through 2 days, and the treatment can decrease the speed of decay, but it also brings button scald. The hot water treatment would let citrus stay in 53℃ through 5 minutes or 57℃ through 10 minutes, and the result shows that hot water treatment is better than the hot-air treatment and TBZ even the situation of 57℃ and 10 minutes may lead heat injury. The hot water treatment apply in the citrus which was not infected still need further study.
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