強化重要外銷熱帶果樹競爭力之研究

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計畫名稱: 強化重要外銷熱帶果樹競爭力之研究
計畫主持人: 邱國棟
共同計畫主持人: 蘇慶昌;方信秀;林素禎;王怡玎;官青杉;李文豪;李文立
計畫編號: 103農科-9.2.3-農-C3(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所鳳山熱帶園藝試驗分所
全程計畫年: 2014
關鍵字: 芒果;mango;採後處理;postharvest;木瓜;papaya;育種;breeding;實生選拔;seedling selection;番荔枝;annona squamosa;檢疫;quarantine;番木瓜;papaya;木瓜輪點病毒;papaya ringspot virus;鳳梨釋迦;annona atemoya;外銷;exporting;區域試作;regional observation;鳳梨;Pineapple;育種;Breeding;不時花;off-season flowering;產期調節;forcing culture;雜交育種;Cross Breeding;鳳梨學名;Ananas comosus;容器栽培;container culture;塑膠網室;plastic house;木瓜;Papaya;採收後處理;Postharvest handling treatment;荔枝;Litchi fruit;果實品質;Fruit quality;綜合農耕;Integrated farming;龍眼;Longan;微生物;Microorganism;香蕉;Banana;損傷;injury;黃葉病;Fusarium wilt;包裝;package;儲運;storage and transportation;番荔枝;Annona squamosa;鳳梨釋迦;Annona atemoya;楊桃;carambola;雜交育種;breeding;紅龍果;pitaya;實生選種;Seedling selection;品種改良;variety improvement;莖頂生長點;shoot meristem
摘要: (一)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-熱帶果樹貯運與良質果品生產技術研究(委辦) 台灣積極開拓水果外銷市場以調節國內果品數量與維持市場價格,其中又以木瓜、番荔枝、鳳梨釋迦為台灣水果中極需增進外銷潛力之水果,但近年來在出口值呈現有負成長或停滯現象,其原因為到貨品質不佳與後熟快速使貯運能力受限。因此希望經由關鍵貯運技術的開發,提升水果到貨品質及延長櫥架壽命。於諸多問題及待開發技術中,以減少番木瓜果腐和熱害與氣變包裝之技術、番荔枝檢疫和保鮮技術與研究減少鳳梨釋迦褐化與保鮮技術為首要工作,本計劃即針對上述工作進行試驗及開發。 (二)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-鳳梨育種 計畫目標:育成植株小,葉緣無刺,果實適中,糖酸比高,品質佳,適於鮮食品種,以供推廣。 方法:(1).親本授粉:在3-4月間梨開花盛花期,選擇優良親本配組進行雜交授粉,然後將種子播種,依次經溫室、網室、田間育苗選拔。(2).初選優良品系繁殖與複選:初選優良品系繼續進行複選,並利用組織培養及老莖切片繁殖種苗。(3).品系比較試驗:經複選結果較具優秀品系進行比較試驗。(4).種原貯藏力評估: 建立雜交用種原及優選及台農品種等之貯藏能力,以做為日後選育耐貯運性品種之雜交組合判斷來源。 預期效益:期能育成植抹小,葉緣無剌,果實過中,糖酸比高,風味佳,適於鮮食品種。 (三)、台灣木瓜短程外銷之易行保鮮貯運技術研究 本計畫擬研發台灣木瓜短程外銷之易行保鮮貯運技術。內容包括測試與建立台灣木瓜銷售中國的簡要採後保鮮處理方法與步驟。期能拓展台灣木瓜之外銷產業,紓解國內盛產期的銷貨壓力,穩定供銷市場。本年度研究重點包括木瓜貯運壽命季節性變化,採收成熟度與腐損之關係,以及藥劑或非藥劑防治腐損之方法測試等。 (四)、熱帶果樹—綜合農耕技術與微生物菌劑在香蕉黃葉病防治之應用 香蕉黃葉病又稱巴拿馬病或鐮胞菌萎凋病,1967年首次出現在屏東縣佳冬地區,由於當時未能立即採取隔離及撲滅措施,1980年期間已由南台灣擴及台蕉所有主產區。在2002年期間香蕉受黃葉病波及者達四千多公頃(當年全省種植面積為一萬多公頃),為目前影響台灣香蕉產業發展之最大限制因素。本計畫擬利用綜合農耕技術,調整土壤養份,利用農業資材,接種拮抗微生物,期能降低香蕉黃葉病發病率與病害程度。 (五)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-芒果、番木瓜品種選育 為改善現有栽培品種的缺點,並增加品種的多樣性,本計畫擬從優良品種(系)的自然雜交授粉實生後代中進行選育,選育目標為鮮紅或橙紅色果皮,纖維量少,果實不易劣變,可提早採收追熟及耐貯運之優良品系。本計畫完成後,預期可選育出品質優、豐產、果實不易生理劣變及耐貯運的優良品系,供栽培選擇與利用。 去年度以網室栽培保存不抗(耐)病毒病之木瓜種源27品系並採得自交種子,可供作為本年度育種親本材料。培育上年度檢定選獲20個抗(耐)病毒病檢定及果實品質性狀調查,其中以代號6、8、9、10及13等5個品系或雜交組合之健株比例較高,甚至可達100%,具高度抗病性,所有田間種植之品系均經PCR方式進行轉基因木瓜檢測,部分品系呈陽性反應,其中編號6-1之單株品系具有高耐病性且經檢測非基因轉殖木瓜,這些品系可供本進行自交分離並選拔耐病性單株。 (六)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-設施容器栽培對芒果產期調節及果實品質影響之研究 利用卓安南品種的不時花特性,配合修剪、肥培管理及設施容器栽培方式來調節芒果產期,以達週年生產。將卓安南芒果以修剪配合高磷鉀處理,使得開花期調節集中於9-11月,並評估以設施栽培用於產期調節的可能性。如此藉由芒果品種及延長產期技術之提昇,達到穩定果實品質與供貨,以利外銷市場的開拓。(1)、Team of Tropical Fruits Tree Research- Study on Postharvest Technology and Quality Fruit Production of Tropical Fruits In Taiwan fruits, papaya, sugar apple and atemoya , are becoming more important and potential items in exporting to foreign country. For some time past, the exporting value of those fruits was no growth or on the decrease because of the poor quality after transportation. In order to improve quality during transportation and increase the shelf-life in market, we hope to improve and use forcing culture technology and to develop the key technique of postharvest handling. After evaluating the problem and probable technology, the following goals are very important, inclucing to develop the handling processes for reducing decay and heat injury, and modified atmosphere storage method will be evaluated. Arm to improve the technologies of quarantine and handling of sugar apple fruit, and reduce the browning and splitting of atemoya after storage. The objectives of this study are to research and examine the problem or goals as above. (2)、Pineapple breeding 1.Objectives:The goals of the breeding are to breed fresh pineapple cultivars having characters of small plant size, smooth leaf, medium fruit size, high sugar content and better fruit qualities. 2.Methods:(1).Controlled hybridizations are conducted in March to April, when the pineapple are in full bloom. Extracting hybrid seeds as the fruits are harvested and then planted seed in the greenhouse. Hybrid seedlings are primarily selected both in net room and greenhouse. Selected seedlings are transferred onto field for advanced evaluation. (2). Superior hybrid clones are propagated for advance stages testing of individual plants. Tissue culture and asexual propagation are used to keep adequate number for replicated evaluations. (3). Superior advanced clones are fur there valuated by comparing with commercial cultivators at Chai Yi Agriculture Experiment Station. (4).Storage ability assessment : Establishment of the pineapple grmplasm, Tainung varieties and hybrid line, assessment the storage capacity for the hybrid combinations source as a future breeding. 3.Expected achievement:It will be expected to breed some cultivars which have good fresh fruit characters. (3)、Improvement of handling and quality preservation technologies for papaya for export to short-distance overseas markets Improvement of handling and quality preservation technologies for papaya for export to short-distance overseas markets: This research project involves studies on improved technologies of handling, quality conservation, and shipping of papaya for export to relatively short-distance overseas markets. Fundamental handling procedures and quality preservation treatments for papaya to be shipped to China mainland will be developed. This year's studies emphasize seasonal variation of shipping quality of the fruit, optimun maturity at harvest, and chemical and non-chemical decay control methods. (4)、Tropical fruit trees—Integrated application of farming techniques and microbial agents in the control of banana Fusarium wilt Integrated farming techniques and microbial agents in banana Fusarium wilt prevention Banana yellow leaf disease, also known as Panama disease or Fusarium wilt disease, the first time in 1967 in Pingtung County Jiadong was not immediately taken to isolate and extinguish measures, 1980 has been in southern Taiwan extended all the main banana producing areas. The banana yellow leaf disease spread by more than 4,000 hectares (the year the province planted area of ​​more than ten thousand hectares), the biggest limiting factor currently affecting the development of the banana industry in Taiwan in 2002. This project proposes the integrated farming techniques to adjust soil nutrients , add agricultural materials, and inoculate with antagonistic microorganisms, hoping to reduce the incidence of the banana Fusarium wilt. (5)、Team of Tropical fruit trees research-Breeding of Mango and Papaya The purpose of this study is to improve the mango varieties. In order to improve disadvantage of existing cultivars and increase the varieties of mango, this study expect to select advance seedlings from hybrid and natural crossing generations. This selection goal is scarlet or orangered fruit skin color, low fiber fresh, few fruits disorder, early harvest and long shelf time. We preserved 27 virus-nonresistant papaya lines in net house last year, and harvested self-crossing seeds which are used as materials for breeding parents this year. Developed 20 lines that pass virus-resistant detection and fruit quality investigation last year, and 5 papaya lines (or hybrids), including No. 6, 8, 9, 10 and 13, showed high PRV resistance, that even reach to 100%. Therefore, all lines which planted in field proceed transgenic detection by PCR technology. The result show that most lines are positive reaction; however, No.6-1 line contains high virus-resistant and it is not transgenic papaya. We use these 5 lines to proceed self-separation and virus-resistant selection. (6)、Team of Tropical fruit trees research- Research of the container culture effects on mango forcing culture and fruit quality in plastic house Using Chok-anan characteristic (off-season flower) compared with trimming, fertilizing and container culture to adjust mango product period to reach year-round production.Using KH2PO4 and pruning treatment to make Chok-anan’s florescence concentrate on in September - November, and to assess the possibility of net-house culture. Therefore, in order to develop export market, we work on finding off-season mango cultivars and extending production period to achieve stable fruit quality and supply.
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