強化重要外銷熱帶果樹競爭力之研究

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計畫名稱: 強化重要外銷熱帶果樹競爭力之研究
計畫主持人: 王仁晃
共同計畫主持人: 江筱慧;王怡玎;邱展臺;李文立;邱祝櫻;陳思如;李雪如;黃士晃;何孟勳;朱堉君;邱國棟;張錦興
計畫編號: 104農科-9.4.4-子-K1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會高雄區農業改良場作物改良課
全程計畫年: 2015
關鍵字: 木瓜;Papapya;育種;Breeding;儲運;Storage and Transportation;芒果;Mangifera indica L.;乳汁;Latex;生理病變;Physiological disordor;木瓜;Papaya;嫁接;Grafting;採收後處理;Postharvest handling treatment;果實品質;Fruit quality;芒果;mango;番木瓜;papaya;育種;breeding;棗;Jujube;番木瓜;Papaya;番石榴;Guava;蓮霧;Wax-apple;檬果;Mango;供源;source;乾物重;dry weight;碳平衡;carbon balance
摘要: 優質番木瓜品種選育 育成耐儲運、果皮斑點少、品質優良之外銷用番木瓜品種,使國內木瓜能順利拓展國外市場,建立冬季生產優良果品之栽培模式,提昇國內番木瓜 產業之國際競爭性。 臺南區優質熱帶果樹品種改良與栽培技術改進 一、育成品質優、豐產、抗病性強、果實不易劣變及耐貯運之優良芒果品種,或具有鮮紅色果皮等特殊品種。同時分散部分芒果生產期,調節市場。 二、針對愛文芒果果皮流膠病變發生原因行綜合性的探討,可提供預防的方針,期以提高芒果產量與品質,可因此提高農民收益20%以上。 三、 提昇木瓜無性繁殖種苗品質,提高無性繁殖效率,建立優質番木瓜無性繁殖生產技術。台灣木瓜短程外銷之易行保鮮貯運技術研究 一、針對中國大陸沿海地區的都會型市場,研發產業界容易施行的木瓜外銷貯運技術,減少貯運腐損,提升並確保到貨品質。 二、拓展外銷產業,亦可舒緩國內盛產期的銷貨壓力,穩定國內供銷市場。芒果、番木瓜品種選育 一、本計畫完成後,芒果預期可選出果形大小中等、果皮顏色佳、果實品質優良、不易生理劣變、耐貯運、具矮性及不時花特性等之優良品系3個以上,供品系比較試驗。 二、更新維持番木瓜核心種原15種、選拔3個以上中果型優良雜交品系,供品系比較試驗。 高雄區果樹品種改良 一、棗選育出具有早熟、豐產、耐白粉病、櫥架壽命長、掛樹期長、品質優良之品系(種)。 二、芒果選育出早熟、優質、耐貯運、耐候及抗病蟲害之品系(種)。 三、蓮霧選育低裂果率、著色穩定、品質優良之品系(種)。 四、木瓜選育出耐貯運、果重約400-800公克,品質優良、產量豐富適合內外銷品系(種)。 五、番石榴選育出優質豐產、紅肉、果肉厚或夏季品質佳的白肉優良品系(種)。調控積貯穩定番木瓜生產之研究 試驗結果除可提供木瓜植株不同生長時期供源與積貯乾物重分配比例的重要參考數據外,利用人為調節積貯(果實)數目以控制著果及樹冠發育,可有效提升夏季豪雨及冬季短日低溫季節環境逆境下木瓜植株的存活率,有效穩定木瓜生產。Good quality varieties selection on papaya The objectives of this study are planting good resistance to storage and transportation lines, hybrids, for selecting good combinations for subsequent comparison test. Plant Peel smooth, physiological spotted little strain providing isolation and selection for next year. Study on the improvement of some high-quality tropical fruits variety and cultural technique in Tainan district. 一、To collect the mango varieties, which have disease resistant and good fruit quality, can be used into the breeding plan. Meanwhile, we evaluated the breeding seedlings that selected from the open-pollination of mango seeds. 二、Irwin mango is one of major mango varieties in Taiwan. In recent years, due to the resinous latex sap burst on the fruit peep during fruit development stage, those fruits were contaminatedand and decreased the quality of fruit postharvest. To avoid this problem, we study on how or what causes the resinous latex sap burst on the fruit peel of 'Irwin' mango, and hope to find the way to prevent such situation and can improve the fruit quality of those commercial mango cultivars, and then increase the benefit of farmers. 三、This study want to improve papaya grafting quality and to set up the papaya grafting propagation system more efficiency. Improvement of handling and quality preservation technologies for papaya for export to short-distance overseas markets Improvement of handling and quality preservation technologies for papaya for export to short-distance overseas markets: This research project involves studies on improved technologies of handling, quality conservation, and shipping of papaya for export to relatively short-distance overseas markets. Fundamental handling procedures and quality preservation treatments for papaya to be shipped to China mainland will be developed. Small-scale simulated trial shipment adopting newly integrated technologies and procedures based on the results of previous two year’s experiments will be conducted. Based on the new findings of the simulated trial shipments, the technologies and procedures may be modified and further improved. Test cultivars includes ‘Tainung no. 2’and a newly bred cultivar of Fengshan Experiment Station. Breeding of Mango and Papaya The purpose of this study is to improve the mango varieties. In order to improve disadvantage of existing cultivars and increase the varieties of mango, this study expect to select advance seedlings from hybrid and natural crossing generations. This selection goal is scarlet or orangered fruit skin color, low fiber fresh, few fruits disorder, early harvest and long shelf time. We preserved 27 virus-nonresistant papaya lines in net house last year, and harvested self-crossing seeds which are used as materials for breeding parents this year. Developed 20 lines that pass virus-resistant detection and fruit quality investigation last year, and 5 papaya lines (or hybrids), including No. 6, 8, 9, 10 and 13, showed high PRV resistance, that even reach to 100%. Therefore, all lines which planted in field proceed transgenic detection by PCR technology. The result show that most lines are positive reaction; however, No.6-1 line contains high virus-resistant and it is not transgenic papaya. We use these 5 lines to proceed self-separation and virus-resistant selection. Fruit Breeding in Kaohsiung District Mango, guava, wax apple, papaya and Jujube are the highly potential crops for exportation in Kaoshiung and Pingtung area. For the purposes to improve disadvantages of these crops on short production period, disease susceptible, short storage/transportation life and difficult to management that the breeding procedures will be carried out in this project. The varieties with excellent quality, high yield, fit to the necessary of exportation are developed and expected. The artificial and natural crosses will be applied in this project for variety developing. Hybrid seeds derived from different cross combinations will be cultivated as seedlings for two growth periods of observations. Hybrid lines with proper fruit size, high total soluble solid content and long shelf life will be selected as materials for line comparing tests. According to the results of line comparing tests, the selected superior lines will be registered as new cultivar and then for extension.Selection of better quality or suitable traits for exportation purposes in wax apple, mango, Indian jujube, guava and papaya through breeding for planting, or cultural practice improvement in increasing the quality and yield will be beneficial for increasing the  farmers  income.  For breeding and selection of superior varieties, the artificial and natural crosses will be applied in this experiment. Hybrid seeds obtained from different cross combinations will be propagated as seedlings for the two-year observations. Lines with large fruit size, high total soluble solid content, and long fruit shell life etc. will be selected as materials for line test. Superior lines selected from line test will be further tested by regional yield trial at major production  sites. From the results of regional yield trials, the selected lines with good performance will be registered as new cultivar and then for extension. Study on Manipulation of Sink to Stabilize the Production of Papaya To study the manipulation of sink to stabilize the productivity of papaya, experiments with two projects will be conducted in this year. First, we will investigate the partition of dry weight of source and sink within papaya tree in different growing stage. Next, to increase the fruit setting rate, tree canopy development and decrease the mortality of productivity papaya trees in summer heavy rainfall season and in winter short day-length season, we will manipulate the sink size, which are fruit numbers, to adjust the partition of sink and source. In this study, we will suggest how to stabilize the quality and production on papaya tree.
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