|關鍵字： 番石榴；guava；採收時間；harvest time；預冷技術；precooling technology；冷鏈；cold chain；長程外銷保鮮技術；long-distance export preservation technology
|摘要： 番石榴具週年生產的特性，目前外銷量逐年增加，每月均有出口，為提升外銷競爭力，穩定供貨品質及供貨量是必要條件，主要外銷國家為加拿大等地。近期美國已准許臺灣番石榴進入該國，在外銷上如何維持果實品質，是目前重要的課題。 台灣外銷番石榴，常因夏季氮肥施用過多，高溫多濕，果實生長快速，造成果實品質不佳，而使外銷果品到貨品質因果皮褐化、果心軟化等劣變造成高腐損率。造成主要損耗之關鍵因素為果實田間熱未快速進行去除，因而影響長程運輸之到貨品質。 為快速去除田間熱可從幾個方面下手，其一影響因子為採收時間，不同採收時間可影響果實田間熱的累積量，如清晨採收，則田間熱累積量較低。另外可以利用預冷技術(如室冷、水冷、壓差預冷、冰冷等)，將果實的田間熱快速去除，但因番石榴果實果皮結構脆弱，不當的處理方式極為容易造成表皮受傷，進而使果實腐爛，因此擇一最佳預冷方式尤其重要。 本計畫擬針對田間採收時間、採收至集貨場運輸時程、預冷技術、包裝方式及規劃溫度管理，進行從田間到消費端冷鏈外銷流程標準化，期能提升夏季番石榴長程外銷貯運品質及其產值，並開發新興外銷市場，提升帶動整個番石榴產業的價值。 108年美國開放台灣番石榴准入，其低溫檢疫條件重新訂定為果心溫度1℃17天，因此船運期間貯運之溫度管理需重新試驗檢測，期能符合低溫檢疫之需求，且到貨果品仍可維持優質狀態，以訂定台灣番石榴果實輸美標準作業流程。Guava has the characteristics of year-round production, and the export quantity is increasing year by year, with monthly export. In order to enhance the competitiveness of export , stable quality and supply are necessary requirements. The main export country of guava is Canada. Recently, the United States has permitted Taiwan's guava to enter the country, therefore how to maintain fruit quality for export is an important issue at this moment. Due to excess nitrogen fertilizer, high temperature and humidity, and rapid fruit growth in summer, poor fruit quality often encountered. Export fruit has high corrosion rate related to inferior changes such as skin browning and pulp softening. The key factor causing the main loss is the failure to remove the field heat rapidly, thus affecting the guava fruit quality during long distance export. In order to rapidly remove the field heat, several aspects may be considered. One of the key factors is the harvesting time. Different harvesting time can affect the accumulation of field heat, for example, accumulation of field heat is lower when harvested in early morning. In addition, pre-cooling technologies (such as room cooling, hydro cooling, differential pressure pre-cooling, ice cooling, etc.) can be used to rapidly remove the field heat of the fruit. However, due to the fragile structure of the guava fruit peel, improper treatment is extremely easy to damage the skin, which in turn causes the rotten fruit. Therefore, it is essential to choose the best pre-cooling method. This study evaluates the field harvest time, the transport time from harvest to the collection yard, the pre-cooling technology, the packaging method and the temperature management to standardize the cold chain export process from the field to the consumer side. It is expected to improve the fruit quality and value of summer guava for long distance export, to develop the emerging export market, and to enhance the value of the guava industry. The United States approved the import of guava from Taiwan in 2019. The low temperature quarantine requirements are reset as 1 ℃ fruit core temperature for 17 days. The temperature management during storage and transportation needs to be re-tested with hope to meet the requirements of low temperature quarantine, to maintain high fruit quality after transportation, and to set up the standard operating procedures for guava exported to the United States.