導入綠色農糧產業供應體系技術

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計畫名稱: 導入綠色農糧產業供應體系技術
計畫主持人: 張惠如
共同計畫主持人: 胡智益;張嘉滿;張汶肇;邱淑媛;林妤姍;陳柏翰;楊淑惠;張倚瓏;黃柄龍;周明燕;林宏宗;張光華;黃圓滿;洪瑛穗;葉瑞恩;陳涵葳;林孟輝;黃哲倫;劉廣泉;徐智政;陸柏憲;吳以健;李淑真;劉芳怡;李文立;黃勝新;任珮君;陳富永;林怡如;吳東鴻;馮永富;何昱圻;唐佳惠;楊采文;賴永昌;龔美玲;翁一司;陳薪喨;蔡憲宗;黃永芬;黃惟揚;洪千雅;李健;劉天麟;周佳霖;
計畫編號: 109農科-19.1.2-子-X1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會種苗改良繁殖場生物技術課
全程計畫年: 2020
關鍵字: 發酵;介質;椪柑;生理障礙;友善環境;乾燥;黑豆副產物;光敏劑;多酚;紅龍果;光敏抗菌;高空作業;乾燥加工;加值應用;省工;貯藏壽命;桶柑;葉用仙草;葉黃素;味噌;疏果;茶;生物可分解塑膠資材;農產品格外品;混雜;廢棄物減量;抗壞血酸;副產品;採收機;育苗;果乾;果汁;南瓜;雜草型紅米;農產品加工;即食性食品;商品化;包裝材料;發酵;文心蘭;水果披膜;甘藷;紅龍果;甘藍;綠竹廢棄物;量產;文旦;加工;果菜;百香果;氣變包裝;發酵;梨;乾燥技術;類胡蘿蔔素;有色碾餘米;規格生產;格外品;可分解塑膠;番茄;fermentation;medium;Mandarin citrus;Physiological disorder;eco-friendly;Drying;black soybean byproduct;Photosensitizer;ployphenol;dragon fruit, pitaya;Photosensitive antimicrobial;aerial work;Drying process;Value-added applications;labor-saving;Shelf Life
摘要: (1)農產品加工節能減廢創新技術研發與應用(1)文旦格外品加工技術研發與應用:文旦( Citrus grandisOsbeck)為芸香科之果樹,花蓮縣文旦產量佔全國約22%,是花蓮縣現有的果樹產業中栽培面積最大者。國人對文旦的消費習慣已普遍與中秋節結合,使得文旦銷售情形在中秋節前後有極大的差別,加上運輸銷售不便,果農有大量文旦需在短時間內售出的壓力,若遇中秋節與白露相近時,產銷失衡問題更加嚴重。在營養價值方面,文旦富含維生素C、果糖、葡萄糖、果膠、纖維質等營養成分,因此本計畫之目的為透過處理流程建議及加工技術之研發,能有效處理前述之文旦格外品,減少廢棄文旦數量,並提升文旦格外品之附加價值。(2)調味鳳梨果乾製作技術之研究:鳳梨 (<em>Anana comosus</em>)為熱帶水果之一,其風味及營養價值頗受消費者喜愛;然而盛產期常因到貨量大而使價格低迷,使農友承受不小的壓力。為提升現階段鳳梨產業競爭力,有必要針對產地和鳳梨果農進行協助與引導產業發展,更需針對加工鏈和加工產品衛生檢驗,例如投入鳳梨果乾加工流程之研發。鑑於果乾製作過程易引起植體組織發生巨大的物理與化學變化,而這些變化對果乾整體的量質產生很大的影響,例如抗壞血酸降解、色澤劣化、產品失色、果肉組織縐縮等。因此,為減輕果乾製程的衝擊,除了慎選乾燥用的鳳梨果實原料,適當的前處理技術,乾燥溫度控利與最佳包裝條件等,各環節均需詳加設計,本研究將進行'TNG 17'鳳梨果片乾燥技術之研究與開發。(3)開發番石榴疏果及檸檬減廢之加工技術:為開發農產副產天然防褐變資材,應用於大宗農產果乾並建立適當之加工條件,以提升產品安全性、功能性,並達創造國產農產更高之利用價值目的。本計畫擬先以檸檬及番石榴等之副產如果皮、疏果等尚未開發利用,但富含抗氧化及抑菌成分部位,以乾燥處理或萃取方式,並配合乾燥加工技術,研發其應用於芒果或鳳梨等大宗農產之果乾,在抑菌、抗氧化及防褐變效果有最適加工條件。(4)量產甘藍加工利用之研究:本研究擬以葉菜類如甘藍等量產蔬菜為素材,利用簡易操作的加工技術,開發出在鮮食與傳統加工產品之外,具市場潛力之新穎加工相關產品,可使農產製品具多樣化,提升產業附加價值,以期能增加國內市場需求量,延長其產銷價值,紓解農產品產銷失衡問題。(5)蔭油醬粕新型態產品開發與加工應用:蔭油製造過程中,主要的副產物為蔭油醬粕。每生產1,000 公升的蔭油,即會產生 1.222~1.5 公噸的蔭油醬粕,目前這些副產物多回收作為動物飼料或棄置,並無有效應用方式。本計畫全程目標擬透過加工技術如乾燥粉碎、調煮、發酵等處理,有效利用醬粕副產物中鹽分與風味物質,開發醬粕新型態調味產品,減少加工浪費。前年度已完成調味粉、滷味醬開發,今年度擬完善調味粉及滷味醬的標準化生產製程與產品儲藏穩定性資訊外,另新建立醬粕味噌發酵製程,探討不同醬粕與米原料添加比例對味噌發酵品質影響,同時評估發酵熟成之味噌經不同乾燥方式(熱風乾燥、冷凍乾燥及真空乾燥)後粉末特性,以利後續衍生製作味噌粉末製品。本計畫期以透過系列醬粕產品開發增加醬粕多元使用樣態與使用方便性,開發蔭油副產物加值再利用技術,減少糧食加工浪費。(6)柑橘疏果及格外品之全果加工利用技術開發:柑橘類水果於種植過程中的疏果或落果,目前大多以堆肥等較不具經濟價值的方式做處理,而在量產價跌時,由於消費端需求不足,最後往往只能賤價出售甚至不進行採收。然而,這些果實中仍含有許多機能性物質,如多酚類、類黃酮、精油及膳食纖維等。本研究以柑橘疏果果實及格外品作為原料,建立疏果果實與格外品全物利用,並於小型農產加工場進行技術推廣示範,以增加不同時期柑橘果實的利用性及加工產品多樣性,創造產品附加價值,緩解農民對柑桔類果實過盛之虞的壓力,提升柑橘產業競爭力。(7)甘藷格外品與副產物加工產品開發:甘藷塊根生產中格外品的比率高達20~30%,其與大量地上部之副產品等皆被農民做為廢棄物丟棄,造成農民收益受損與環境污染等問題。本計畫以甘藷地上部作為葉黃素萃取原料,開發以本土原料萃取葉黃素之技術。並以格外品開發作為甘藷初級加工相關商品,並進行食品分析,本計畫可減少甘藷生產之廢棄物,並能提高甘藷的產值與多樣化加工利用。(8)紅龍果格外品加工技術之開發:紅龍果因市場價格不錯,再加上其本身生長快速,且耐病蟲害及不良環境抗性強,農民栽培意願高,因此紅龍果種植面積與收量有逐年持續增加的趨勢。分析國產紅龍果市場,國產紅龍果以國內市場居多,出口量僅占1%,倘若紅龍果種植面積與收量有持續增加,則未來紅龍果市場恐有崩盤之狀況。另外,每年約有一至兩成的紅龍果因外觀未達到分級標準被歸類成格外品,無法進入市場或者是以低價販售。紅龍果中含有天然的紅色色素甜菜紅素,若能藉由加工的方式將紅龍果製成天然色素果乾粉,作為著色劑添加於其他食品當中,可降低格外品的報廢量,並提高其經濟價值。(2)綠色生產鏈加值化與減廢技術研發與應用(1)開發綠竹廢棄物多元商品在花卉的加值應用:本試驗旨在利用綠竹廢棄物開發為綠竹板可作為園藝資材,取代蛇木,多功能綠竹板組合容器,提升綠竹廢棄物利用率。(2)文心蘭生產及更植之廢棄介質減量技術研發與應用:本計畫已完成4種新型混合介質開發,及其理化特性分析,並進行栽培測試。配方D、E及F較適合出瓶苗種植,配方I較適合中苗或成株種植。文心蘭`檸檬綠’出瓶苗及6個月植株使用本研究開發的新型混合介質栽培,植株生長表現良好。(3)番木瓜採種副產物之加值化應用技術建立:本計畫將番木瓜種子生產後所產生果肉及果皮廢棄物 ,建立兩大項應用技術:(a)木瓜發酵液產品應用技術,可應用於生產製造木瓜酒及美容保健用品。(b)番木瓜果皮果膠萃取技術,並以萃取果膠後之殘渣建立果皮造紙技術,再以此技術開發應用商品。(4)番茄種子調製處理及副產物多元技術開發利用:本研究於對番茄生產及採種過程中,利用季節性盛產果品或次級品加工為果乾、番茄粉,增加果實之利用率。並且利用種子生產調製後的大量果實殘渣,減少廢棄農產品副產物並轉型加值,達成減廢之效益。(5)建構種苗產業南瓜果肉副產品加值利用體系:將適合加工的南瓜品系運用食品加工技術將果肉製成南瓜粉或乾燥脆片,以減少南瓜種子生產時所產生的廢棄物問題,提昇南瓜的利用價值,並增加種苗業者的整體收益。(6)菠菜葉綠素衍生物生產技術與光敏性應用:國內冷凍食品加工廠每年的菠菜廢棄量約1,600公噸,這些副產物大多被當成垃圾處 理或動物粗料,經濟效益低。本研究擬開發菠菜葉綠素衍生物製備技術,生產天然光敏劑,並 研究其於選擇性殺滅有害菌和保護自然微生物群落等方面的應用性。(7)建立設施短期葉菜規格化生產整合技術及調整採收損耗之省工機械:為有效降低短期葉菜生產過程的農產品耗損及人力成本,擬建立設施短期葉菜規格化生產整合姓技術與機械採收栽培模式,以利減少廢替損耗、提升葉菜品質與省工作業,提升農民工作效率與收益。(8)甘藷機械化規格生產優化及減廢整合技術之建立:臺灣甘藷產業收穫量其中約70%以鮮食為主,其餘30%的格外品僅能作為飼料或廢棄無法使用。本計畫以栽培及病蟲害防治整合技術搭配一貫化收穫機械,將減少10%甘藷格外品,提升高品質甘藷比例達30%以上,提高甘藷的商品經濟價值進而增加農民之收益。(9)建構慣行栽培下有色碾餘米之綜合減損技術研究:異型紅米會造成嚴重有色碾餘米的產生,建議收穫後先湛水使殘留稻種發芽再進行翻耕作業,移植後連續間隔7天施用3次選擇性除草劑,推延自生苗的發生期,打破其繁殖週期,最終再針對少數雜草型紅米進行田間移除,作為降低慣行栽培下有色碾餘米之綠色供應(10)減廢省工之水稻直播技術建立:本計畫已初步完成直播系統之建構,今年度擬持續進行不同水稻品種之試驗,以增加直播水稻的多元性,全面評估直播栽培系統的減廢、節能、省工的效益。(11)提升文旦果園作業效率及降低採收損耗之省工機具研發及應用:本計畫擬引入農用高空作業機,評估在文旦果園果實採收、套袋等作業與省工栽培模式建立及應用,提升果實採收工作效率50%以上 ,降低果實生產過成之損耗10%以內,並推廣農民於實際操作應用。(12)氣變包裝技術和非農藥處理在蜜雪梨和椪柑採收後保鮮技術上的應用:本計畫係以打孔式氣變包裝長蜜雪梨的貯藏壽命及抑制椪柑貯藏病害的發生,並以非農藥處理幾丁質膜處理椪柑,減少貯藏病害,藉此達成減廢及減少農藥的目標。(13)紅龍果外銷包裝資材開發及應用:設計不同包裝材料之氣變貯藏進行試驗,測試氣變包裝於紅龍果應用之效果。同時測試微孔包裝材料於紅龍果模擬外銷貯運之保鮮效果,期以將所開發之外銷包裝資材,搭配國內紅龍果生產合作社或出口商進行產業用外銷測試包裝材料、使用方法。(14)不同產季之外銷供果用木瓜貯運性質探討與披膜設計:本計畫擬探討調查目前台灣農戶生產之木瓜果實之生理障礙與病害樣式,並予以回溯症狀初期之跡象,以預測該果實品質是否良好,並輔以使用食品安全性之披膜適度延長其保存期限。(15)茶及飲料作物之生物可分解材料應用開發:因此本研究擬開發低成本 可分解之農地膜,建立出最佳配方及製程參數條件,降低農地膜生產成本,應用於葉用仙草田,並降低除草劑之使用。 另評估不同之可分解育苗杯(袋),建立可分解茶苗扦插繁殖生產體系,期望繁殖出根系強壯之茶苗,另一方面減少農業廢棄物之產生。(16)友善環境育苗資材應用技術開發:本計畫年度擬透過儲放試驗了解可分解塑膠育苗資材商品壽命,以及於自然環境下之分解情形篩選最適分解環境條件,以做為可分解育苗資材改良依據,應用於農業生產上達到降低碳排、減少塑膠廢棄物、保護環境、農業永續利用的目標。(17)利用可分解塑膠資材生產果菜之研究:本計畫擬針對臺灣果菜生產中塑膠布殘留問題,導入新型生物可分解塑膠布,減少塑膠汙染問題。109年度將依果菜不同生長期程,導入分解日數240天之可分解塑膠布,建立適合果菜周年(夏作甜瓜+秋作小果番茄)生產的應用技術。(3)運用加工技術進行國產大宗農產品減廢之研究本計畫以檸檬及百香果為目標作物,期望以該兩項農作物之格外品或副產物為原料,藉由導入加工技術及開發新產品,提升農產品附加價值及減少廢棄物,朝向農糧資源全利用的目標。Development of Innovative Technology in Energy Saving and Waste minimisation of Agricultural Products Processing Development of the processing techniques for off grading pomelo Pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) is the fruit tree of Rutaceae. The production of pomelo in Hualien County is about 22% that is largest cultivation area of fruit tree in Hualien. Consumers' consumption habits of pomelo have been generally combined with the Moon Festival, which makes the sales situation of pomelo greatly different before and after the Moon Festival. Due to the inconvenience of transportation and sales, fruit farmers have a lot of pressure that pomelo needs to sell in a short period of time. In the nutritional value, pomelo is rich in vitamin C, fructose, glucose, pectin, fiber and other nutrients. Therefore, the purpose of this project is development of processing technology for off grading pomelo. Reduce the waste of pomelo and increase the added value of it.  Optimization of condiment dry fruit pineapple conditions    Pineapple (<em>Anana comosus</em>) is a tropical fruit with attractive sensorial and nutritional characteristics. Nevertheless, during the full fruiting period of pineapple, there are less price elastic. In order to promote this industry's competitive ability at the present stage, we were necessary to assisted and guided the whole industry, not only the smaller part that origin and pineapple farmers, promote the processing and the examination of products hygienic condition should be strengthened, for example R&D dry fruit pineapple processing process.Consider drying process can induce numerous physical and chemical changes in plant tissues, which have a high impact on its overall quality, such as a loss of ascorbic acid degradation, color changes, shrinkage, etc., can take place during drying of pineapple. So as to,carefully choose materials, suitable pre-processing methods, control drying temperature and best package condition for dry fruit pineapple quality preservation.In order to reduce these disadvantageous effects of drying on the dry fruit pineapple quality, process conditions must be carefully designed. This study will to execute 'TNG 17' pineapple slices drying technique research and development.  Development of Processing Technology for Guava Fruit Thinning and Lemon Waste Reduction  For developing the nonchemical additive dried fruit , aqueous and ethanolic extracts from by product of <em>Citrus Limon </em>(L.) Burm. F. (peel), and<em> Psidium</em> <em>guajava </em>L. (immature fruit) will be used in mango, and pineapple dried products, and the efficiency of various extracts prepared by different extract methods will also be investigated for anti-microbial, antioxidative and anti-browning function.  Studies on food processing technology and utility in cabbage  This study aims at developing a novel processing technology with great market potential to manipulate the high-yield vegetables such as cabbage. This technology may help to diversify agricultural products and lead to more industrial value-added byproducts. We also hope to increase market demand in Taiwan and prolong agricultural marketing , to finally achieve the balance between production and sales of agricultural products.  Utilization of recovered Inyu (black soybean sauce)cake and new product development  In-yu(black soybean sauce) cake is the main by-product in the manufacturing process of the inyu.For every 1,000 liters of inyu, 1.222 to 1.5 tons of the inyu cake was produced, which was still rich in protein, amino acids and soy fiber. Currently, these by-products are mostly wasted or used as animal feed, without effective application. As a result, this study was attempted to improve the economic value of inyu cake residue by several food processing technology. This year, we aim to develop miso fermentation products and  its application  to reduce processing waste and enhance inyu cake usage  Comprehensive utilization of citrus byproducts: thinned fruits and Inglorious fruits       The fruit thinning of citrus fruits is currently mostly treated in a less economical way.On the other hand, when the fruit yield is high, due to insufficient consumer demand, it can only be sold at low prices or even not harvested. However, these fruits have many functional substances such as polyphenols, flavonoids, essential oils and dietary fiber. In this study, citrus fruit thinning and defective products were used as raw materials to establish a fruit utilization program. The results will be promoted in the processing plant to increase the utilization and diversity of citrus in different periods, reduce the pressure on farmers to produce excessive citrus production, and enhance the competitiveness of the citrus industry.  Food Processing Product Development of Sweet Potato Residue  There is a lot of residue and by-products in the sweet potato production, and all are regarded as waste, which will cause environmental pollution in Taiwan. The plan utlizes the sweet potato leaves as the raw material for lutein extraction, and develops it for extracting lutein with local raw materials. At the same time, the root of the sweet potato are used to make some processing products and analysis of the characteristics for processing products. Overall, The plan can reduce the waste of sweet potato production, and increase the output value of sweet potato.  Develop of food processing technique for off-grade dragon fruit  Farmers are willing to cultivate dragon fruit because it has the good price in the market, and it can grows rapidly, resist pests, diseases and adverse environment. Therefore, the planting area and yield of dragon fruit have increasing year by year. Analysis of dragon fruit products in the domestic market, only most 1% of dragon fruits are export, most of dragon fruits still stay in the domestic market. If the planting area and yield of dragon fruit are continuing increase, dragon fruit market may collapse in the future. In addition, there are 10~20% dragon fruit can't fit the classification criteria and be taken out of marketed or sold at a low price. Dragon fruit contains natural red pigment. If we can use food processing to make those dragon fruit into natural pigment which can reduce the disposal amount of dragon fruits and improve Its economic value.  Research and application of value-added and waste reduction technology in green supply chain 1.Development of the application of bamboo waste in the multi-valued productsThe purpose of this experiment is to use bamboo waste to develop green bamboo panels as horticultural materials, replacing snake wood and multifunctional green bamboo panel composite containers, and improve the utilization rate of bamboo waste.  2.The Development and application of waste medium reduction technology for produced and renewed in Oncidium <em>Oncidium</em> is one of the most important cut flowers in Taiwan. It is the orchid industry second only to <em>Phalaenopsis</em>. At present, farmers mainly use gravel, charcoal, bamboo charcoal, bark and mixed other media for cut flower production. After years of cultivation, a large amount of waste media will be produced. In order to reduce waste media produced and media processing issues during cut flower production period. The purpose of this study is to develop new mixed media. Reduce non-recyclable waste production. And establish a new mode of optimal cultivation and management for mixed media and resource reuse. In order to achieve the goals of agricultural production waste reduction and sustainable use of resources. This study has completed the development of four new mixed media formulations, analyzed the physical and chemical characteristics, and cultivation tests. Formulas D, E and F are suitable for deflask plantlets, and formula I is suitable for medium plantlets or adult plants. The deflask plantlets and 6-month-old plants of<em> Oncidium</em> Gower Ramsey 'Honey Angel' which they are showed good growth performance when used the new mixed media. 3.Establishment of value-added application for byproducts of papaya seed production Large amounts of waste were generated during seed production, including fruit hulls, peels, pulps, and plant residues. In order to reduce the environmental impact of seed production waste and to make the most use of them, this project will develop the value-added byproducts from the pulp and peel produced from the papaya seed production. Through this study, it is expected to reduce the amount of fruit waste of papaya seed production, so that to achieve a ‘green’ concept in agriculture. And from this, the formulated byproducts will be commercialized and the processing techniques will be applied in the industrial production, therefore it will enhance the multiple economic values of papaya fruit, and promote the competitiveness of related industries. 4.Establishment of techniques to reduce waste and create valueadded utilization of tomato seed produced and seasonal overproduced tomato.In this research, during the production and seeding process of fresh tomato fruits, the seasonal fruits or secondary products are used to process dried and tomato powder, to evaluate the flavor of dried fruit products, and to initially carry out the process of tomato powder to increase the utilization rate of fruits. Develop a tomato healthy seed production modulation process to reduce environmental pollution. In addition, a large number of fruit residues prepared by seed production are used to increase waste value, reduce waste products by-products and transform value-added to achieve the benefit of waste reduction. Tomatoes contain a large amount of carotenoids, lycopene and other vitamins. Some studies have pointed out that carotenoids can be used as coloring agents. In the past, when consumers chose eggs in Taiwan, the color of the yolk was yellowish. Increasing the price will add fat-soluble pigments in the feed to make the egg yolk darker. Therefore, waste tomato peel residue can be added to the feed and many food additives to maintain the health of livestock and poultry and make tomato eggs for sale.Increase farmers' income.<strong> </strong> 5.Establish the system of value-added utilization on pumpkin residues from seedling industry Pulp is about 90-95% weight of pumpkin and is the main residues for seed production. The production of pumpkin seed will accompany with a large amount of pulp residues which will result in environmental problems and waste of resources. The seedling industries in Taiwan produce about 260 tons of pulp waste from producing pumpkin seeds each year. This project is to evaluate varieties or lines which are suitable for processing by surveying the fruit traits of different pumpkin varieties or lines from market and Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station. Then the pumpkin pulp can be the material of powder or chips by food processing technology in order to reduce the waste problem caused by the production of pumpkin seeds. It also can increase the utilization value of pumpkin and the overall income of the seedling industries. 6.Spinach chlorophyll derivative Production and Application of photosensitiveThe amount of spinach discarded at the frozen food factories is about 1,600 metric tons each year in Taiwan. Most of these by-products are treated as garbage or animal fodder, which only has low economic benefits. Studies have shown that discarded agricultural products also contain a large number of functional substances that have redevelopment value. The optical and physical properties of chlorophyll derivatives are similar to the porphyrins system and are suitable for use in photosensitizers. This study intends to develop spinach chlorophyll derivative preparation technology, produce natural photosensitizers, and study its application in selective killing of harmful bacteria and protection of natural microbial communities. 7.Establishing the integrative cultivation technique for the standardized short-term vegetables production in facilities and improving the labor-saving machinery for reducing agricultural loss during harvest In order to effectively reduce the consumption of agricultural products and labor costs in the short-term leafy vegetable production process, it is proposed to establish a standardized short-term leafy vegetable production and integration of surname technology and mechanical harvesting cultivation mode to reduce waste loss, improve leaf quality and provincial work. Improve the efficiency and benefits of farmers' work. 8.Establishing the integrative mechanized cultivation technique for the standardized sweet potato production for reducing agricultural wasteThe sweet potato industry in Taiwan is dominated by fresh foods, of which about 70% of the harvest is for the fresh food market and processing, and the remaining 30% of the bad products (diseased and pest bited, severe cracked, malformed, and damaged sweet potato) can only be used as feed or discarded. The graded packaging of sweet potatoes can generally be divided into four grades, including high economic commodity value products, extra large products, processed canned products, and small sweet potatoes; in addition to the packaging grades classified by sweet potato size, the appearance can be divided into for the superiorest, excellent and good three levels. When it is used for export or for specific use, the size and weight of the sweet potatoes of specific specifications are required, most of which are medium and small potatoes (100g~300g). The small and medium-sized sweet potatoes have higher commodity value, but they only account for 20~30% in the harvest. The project will use integrated cultivation and pest control technologies with harvesting machinery, which will reduce 10% sweet potato bad products, increase 10% of small and medium-sized sweet potatoes, increase the commercial economic value of sweet potatoes, and increase farmers' income. 9.Study on composite control strategy of colorful residue rice under regulated cultivationColorful residual rice was derived from weedy red rice (WRR) and more serious than before. WRR  possesses weediness traits, including higher seed dormancy and shattering, which facilitate the growth of volunteer plants in the paddy the next season. The off-type plants are not only the source of pollen-mediated gene flow, of pest or disease, but also a competitor of fertilizer due to its good growth vigour. In addition, WRR’s red pericarp and poor eating quality increase production cost, reduce product value and consequently limit the development of global rice industry. Rice cultivation regions world-wide are looking for efficient WRR control. The rice production system in Taiwan is transplanting-based, which is a recommended system to improve weed control at the seedling stage. However, the occurrence of WRR in rice paddy is getting more and more serious in the past few years in Taiwan. Although the WRR occurrence rate is between 0.5 and 1% per contaminated paddy, WRR can be easily spread through shared combine across rice fields. Ratoon cropping or tillage immediately after harvest increase the instances of volunteers and result in yield loss. The efficient control strategies should meet the balance between economic benefit, efficiency, and feasibility. The recommended WRR control under transplanting system would start with irrigating the paddy field after harvest in order to induce the sprouting of shattered seed and then plow the WRR seedlings into the land. Herbicide would then be applied three times in succession every 7 days to delay the development of volunteer plants and to break the life cycle of WRR. The final step would be the manually removal of remaining off-type plants of WRR. The control strategy of colorful residual rice will be helpful to support the green supply chain of the rice industry. 10.Development of lowering waste of rice direct-seeding systemRice is the most important crop and also the most wide-cultivated crop in Taiwan. Traditional rice production applied the method of transplanting and needs rice seedling provision by nursery center. However, there were large amount of medium use, waste seedling tray and labor input. If direct-seeding (DS) method be applied, labor input, materials input and waste could be saved. There are 3 DS types. They are dry DS, wet DS and flooding DS with different field managements and advantages/disadvantages. In 2019, we have finished the experiments of seeding time and DS types. In the results, early seeding would encountered cold stress; late seeding would faced bird and rat damages. Wet DS and flooding DS have the simple field managements and low weed population. Dry DS have the low costs of seeds preparation. This project have primarily developed the DS system. This year, we will continuously apply 2 new varieties in DS experiments for build multiple DS system. We will systematically assess the whole effects of waste-saving, energy saving and labor saving.  11.The developments on the efficiency orchard working machine for reduce harvest losses in pomelo production.Labor shortage and harvesting losses are the main problem on fruit production. In this study we will induct the mobile elevating platform for harvest and bagging to pomelo orchards to increase the labor safety, production efficiency and labor saving. The optimal operation model will also be established for Taiwan flatland orchards in this study. The efficiency of harvesting will be increased by 50% and reduce the fruit losses less than 10% in this study.  12.Application of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Non-pesticide treatment extends shelf life of Honey Snow Pear and Mandarin citrus Study on utilize micropore modified atmosphere packaging a extends shelf life of Honey Snow Pear and reduce storage diseases of mandarin citrus.  and to treat the mandarin citrus with non-pesticide treatment of chitin membrane to reduce storage diseases .The whole goal is  reducing waste and pesticides. Shelf life of Honey Snow pear is extended by 50% for 3 weeks, reducing overripe fruits by 50% and reducing 68 tons of waste every year. Modified atmosphere packaging and non-pesticide treatment technology can inhibit the growth of blue and green mold, replacing 20% of traditional storage treatment methods of  Mandarin citrus used by farmers before storage. Each year, 40 metric tons of plastic bags, 200 metric tons of waste water and 400 kg of 40% WP can be reduced. 13.Studies on packaging materials of dragon fruit for exporting. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is in common use in fruit storage,the respiratory rate is decreased and the water loss is also reduced. Lessening of respiratory rate will conduce to decrease the decay severity. In this study, we focused on the effect of MAP on the storage quality of ‘Da-Hong’ pitaya fruits. The effect of MAP combined with different numbers of penetration  will be investigated. We will test  the  packaging materials of the pitaya fruit with fruit and vegetable production cooperation and evaluate the outcome of application for exporting and further improve the packaging materials. 14.Investigation on storage quality of different seasons of papaya fruits for export and coating development The main export countries of Taiwan's papayas are China, Hong Kong and Singapore, which are near countries to Taiwan. Papaya in Taiwan commonly encounters obstacles in export. The first one is that the fruit is  storage intolerant. The second is that the papaya fruit is often infected by the dormant pathogens during storage and transportation or poor fruit physiological state, which causes fruit corrupt and disease spreads to others in the container, or the fruit can not ripe properly that not suitable for eating after opening the container. This phenomenon of corrupted fruit and the abnormal ripening caused the quarantine restrict of Taiwan's papaya and the unfavorable products on the cabinet. Because these physiological phenomena are related to the cultivation management and the sensitivity to nutrients of its plants, the quality of papaya produced among the farmers is quite different. Therefore, if we can pre-identify green-ripened papayas and filter out those are possibly infected and with abnormal post-harvest characteristics, and then abort these or transfer them to domestic market, so the outbreak of disease and the excessive defect products of papaya fruit can be avoided immediately, which results in the loss of the entire container. Food coating is a common way of prolonging preservation. The principle is to reduce the loss of fruit water during storage and reduce its respiration rate, and also slow down the speed of post-harvest and some diseases, so proper coating can prolong the storage of milder symptoms. The plan is to investigate the physiological disorders and disease patterns of papaya fruits produced by farmers, and to trace the early signs of the symptoms to predict whether the fruit is of good quality, and they can be supplemented by the use of food safety coating to moderately preserve its preservation. 15.Application Development of Biodegradable Materials for Tea and Beverage CropsThe purpose of this project is to use biodegradable plastics to reduce the generation of agricultural waste, and to promote the maintenance of water and soil resources and natural ecology, so that resources can be used sustainably. At present, the weed suppressing mats commonly used in the market are mostly made of non-woven fabric or plastic cloth. After use, it is labor-intensive to recycle, and it is not environmentally friendly. Therefore, this study intends to develop a low-cost decomposable agricultural film to establish the best formula and The process parameter conditions reduce the production cost of agricultural film, apply to the leaf grass field, and reduce the use of herbicides to achieve the goal of sustainable use, labor saving and environmental protection of the earth's resources. In addition, different decomposable seedling cups (bags) were evaluated, and a decomposable tea seedling cutting propagation system was established. It is expected to breed a strong root tea seedling, and use the automatic tea planting machine to directly cultivate the field, and on the other hand, the tea seedlings are omitted. The labor required to remove the bag reduces the root damage and reduces the generation of agricultural waste. 9 - 16.Developement of eco-friendly nursery material technologyTo reduce usage and pollution of plastic containers in nursery industry, this project studies the lifespan of degradable containers for nursery production and the optimum condition of container degradation. The results will help the industry to improve the performance of degradable containers and achieve reductions of carbon emission and plastic waste. Finally, the study will benefit the nursery industry by adoption of sustainable practices. 17.The research for fruit vegetable production with the biodegradable materialsThe fruit vegetables were the important nutrient source in Taiwan. The areas of fruit vegetables were more than 56,000 hectares in2016, including Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae and legume crops. For avoiding the weed growth and rain ablation, we used to cover the plastic film on the surface of field. But, these plastic films can not degrade naturally, we must remove it from the land. So farmers must expend a lot of money and labor to solve the problem. This project will introduce the bio-degradable plastic film, it can naturally and fully degrade on 240 days. We will establish the technology of round-year fruit vegetables production with degradable film.  Research on processing technology for reducing the waste of domestic agricultural production The project is to introduce processing technology and develop new products based on off-grades or byproducts of lemon and passion fruit as materials. By doing so, the added value of agricultural products will be increased and agricultural waste will be reduced.
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