‘宜蘭紅肉拔’番石榴果實採收成熟度與貯藏能力之研究

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論文名稱: ‘宜蘭紅肉拔’番石榴果實採收成熟度與貯藏能力之研究
研究生姓名: 劉益忠
指導教授姓名: 郭純德;尤進欽
出版年: 2014
學校名稱: 國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱: 園藝學系碩士班
關鍵字: 番石榴;‘宜蘭紅肉拔’;採收成熟度;累積生長曲線;雙S生長曲線;貯藏能力;果實品質;貯藏溫度;果皮顏色;呼吸速率;乙烯生成;1-甲基環丙烯;guava (Psidium guajava L.);‘Yilan red’ guava;harvest maturity;cumulative growth curve;double sigmoid curve;storability;fruit quality;storage temperature;peel color;respiration rate;ethylene production;1-Methylcyclopropene
摘要: 本論文共分成‘宜蘭紅肉拔’番石榴果實生育調查及採收成熟度之研究、採收成熟度對‘宜蘭紅肉拔’番石榴果實品質與貯藏能力之影響、採收成熟度與貯藏溫度對‘宜蘭紅肉拔’果皮顏色及果實之呼吸速率與乙烯生成之影響和採收後1-甲基環丙烯處理對‘宜蘭紅肉拔’番石榴果實後熟和品質變化的影響4個部份進行實驗。 生育調查及採收成熟度之研究調查了生長發育,以及在不同發育階段的重量、硬度、果皮色澤、總可溶性固形物、可滴定酸、糖酸比以及抗壞血酸之變化。縱徑與橫徑的累積生長量可明顯區分為3個階段:2013年的第1階段為花後42天前,此階段可見縱徑與橫徑明顯增加;第2階段為花後42天至77天,此階段果實縱徑與橫徑變化量少,接近停滯;第3階段為花後77天,此階段可見縱徑與橫徑大量增加,直至果實成熟。2014年的第1階段為花後49天前,第2階段為花後49天至70天,第3階段為花後70天直至果實成熟。由結果顯示‘宜蘭紅肉拔’應屬具雙S型生長曲線之果實。採收成熟度的結果顯示,花後77天~ 98天果實重量迅速增加,佔最後果重的78%,代表生長量是集中在第3階段;果肉硬度則是花後63和77天最硬,花後98與105天最軟。開花後果皮之L與b*值逐漸上升,35~77天與91~105有明顯差異;a*值則是先上升,後下降,沒有明顯差異。總可溶性固形物則是花後91與98天較高,和105天有明顯差異。而可滴定酸花後91與98天有明顯差異,但是這兩天與花後105天無顯著差異。糖酸比是花後98天最高,與91天有明顯差異。抗壞血酸的含量為花後91天最高,與花後98和105天有明顯差異。 採收成熟度(花後105、112、119天)對果實品質及貯藏能力之影響共調查果實重量、果色、果肉硬度、總可溶性固形物含量、可滴定酸含量、糖酸比及抗壞血酸含量,貯藏力的部份另調查腐爛率與失重率。品質的結果顯示,花後105和112天果實間,除總可溶性固形物含量外,其它品質項目之差異不顯著。但兩者(花後105和112天)與花後119天,各品質項目之差異顯著:花後119天果實之果重,果皮L、a*、b*值,糖酸比最高;但果肉硬度、可滴定酸及抗壞血酸含量,則最低。總可溶性固形物含量則是花後112天果實最高,花後105天最低,且差異顯著。建議的‘宜蘭紅肉拔’番石榴果實採收成熟度為花後112天。 採收成熟度(花後105、112、119天)與貯藏溫度(25、20、10、5℃)對‘宜蘭紅肉拔’的影響調查了腐爛率、L、a*、b*值、呼吸速率和乙烯生成造成的影響。研究結果顯示‘宜蘭紅肉拔’應為更年性果實。花後105天的果實腐爛率第10天才開始上升;花後112天者在第5天開始有果實腐爛;花後119天者則是第4天就有果實腐爛,花後112與119天同時上升至100%。花後105天採收的果實其果皮L值於20℃貯藏第10天達到最大值;花後112與119天於20℃貯藏第5天達到最大值。花後105、112與119天的果皮a*值在貯藏第5、第2與第1天開始上升,持續上升直到實驗結束。花後105、112與119天的果皮b*值在貯藏第4、第2與第1天後開始上升,第10、第5與第4天達到最大值。花後105天的果實在貯藏後第5天呼吸速率開始上升,在第11天到達最高峰;花後112與119天者都在貯藏後逐漸上升,於第9天達到最高峰。花後105天的果實之乙烯生成在貯藏後逐漸上升,第10天達到最高峰;花後112天者於第4天達到最高峰,第5天略為下降後隔天再次上升,於第7天達到第二次高峰;花後119天者在第5天達到最高峰。貯藏溫度的結果顯示,腐爛率在第6天以及第10天有明顯的上升,第6天主要是25℃和20℃,第10天則是10℃和5℃回溫後造成。在果皮L、a*、b*值可以看到貯藏在25℃的果實先上升,再來是20℃的果實上升。貯藏在10℃和5℃的果實則是於回溫後上升,但是10℃的L與b*值沒有正常上升。果實貯藏時呼吸速率是25℃的先上升,再來是20℃,而10℃和5℃則是在回溫後明顯上升。乙烯生成同樣是25℃與20℃的果實先上升,10℃和5℃於回溫後明顯且劇烈上升,最大值超過貯藏於25℃與20℃的果實。由於貯藏在10℃時會造成果實後熟異常,以及比5℃更嚴重的果皮褐化。因此最適合‘宜蘭紅肉拔’ 的貯藏溫度為5℃。 1-甲基環丙烯(1-MCP)實驗探討施加3種濃度的1-MCP處理(0、300、600 nl l-1)對‘宜蘭紅肉拔’果實貯藏期間的腐爛率、失重率、L、a*、b*值、硬度、總可溶性固形物、可滴定酸、糖酸比、抗壞血酸、呼吸作用與乙烯生成造成的影響。在果實後熟過程中大部分生理生化變化受到1-MCP的影響,但是2013與2014年的結果有些許不同。兩年實驗中,1-MCP處理對延緩失去綠色(a*值上升)、硬度降低與延緩乙烯生成上升有明顯的效果。2013年的結果中,1-MCP對延緩a*值、b*值上升、延緩硬度下降與延緩乙烯生成上升有顯著的影響,對腐爛率、失重率、L值、總可溶性固形物、可滴定酸、呼吸速率沒有明顯的效果。2014年的結果中,1-MCP對延緩失重率、L值、a*值上升、延緩硬度、總可溶性固形物下降與延緩乙烯生成上升有明顯的效果,對延緩腐爛率、b*值上升與呼吸速率下降效果較小,對可滴定酸沒有顯著的影響。本次實驗推薦的濃度為600 nl l−1。This thesis is divided into four aspects for experimentation: fruit growth survey and harvest maturity of ‘Yilan red’ guava (Psidium guajava L.), the impact of harvest maturity on the fruit quality and storability of ‘Yilan red’ guava, the impact of harvest maturity and storage temperature on the peel color and fruit respiration rate and ethylene production of ‘Yilan red’ guava, and the impact of postharvest 1-Methylcyclopropene treatment on the ripening and quality changes of ‘Yilan red’ guava. The fruit growth survey and harvest maturity research covers investigation of growth and development, changes on weight, firmness, peel color, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, TSS/TA ratio, and ascorbic acid in different development stages. The cumulative growth curve of longitudinal and transverse diameters can be clearly divided into three stages: The first stage is before 42 days after anthesis in 2013, in this stage, the longitudinal and transverse diameters significantly increased; the second stage is 42-77 days after anthesis, in this stage, the fruit longitudinal and transverse diameters showed little change, almost stagnant; the third stage is 77 days after anthesis, in this stage, the longitudinal and transverse diameters increased significantly until the fruit reached maturity. The first stage of 2014 is before 49 days after anthesis; the second stage is 49 days to 70 days after anthesis; the third stage is 70 days after anthesis until fruit reached maturity. Results show that ‘Yilan red’ guava is a fruit with double-sigmoid curve. The results on harvest maturity show that in the third stage, the flesh firmness was the firmest 63 and 77 days after anthesis, and it was the softest 98 and 105 days after anthesis. The L and b* values of the peel color after anthesis gradually increased, with 35-77 and 91-105 days reaching significant differences; the a* value first increased and then decreased, without significant differences. The total soluble solids were higher 91 and 98 days after anthesis, reaching significant differences at 105 days. The titratable acid showed significant differences for 91 and 98 days after anthesis, but 105 days after anthesis showed no significant differences. The TSS/TA ratio was the highest 98 days after anthesis, reaching significant differences at 91 days. The ascorbic acid content was the highest for 91 days after anthesis, reaching significant differences with 98 and 105 days after anthesis. As for the impact of harvest maturity (105, 112, and 119 days after anthesis) on fruit quality and storability, the survey covered fruit weight, peel color, fruit firmness, total soluble solid content, titratable acid content, TSS/TA ratio, and ascorbic acid content. For the storability part, the decay rate and weight loss rate were also surveyed. The results on quality show that between days 105 and 112, besides the total soluble solid content, the other quality items did not reach significant differences. However, both of them (105 and 112 days after anthesis) reached significant differences in the quality items compared to 119 days after anthesis; the fruit of 119 days after anthesis had the highest fruit weight, L, a*, and b* values of peel color, and TSS/TA ratio; however, it had the lowest fruit firmness, titratable acid, and ascorbic acid content. The total soluble solid content was the highest in the fruit 112 days after anthesis and the lowest 105 days after anthesis, reaching significant differences. The recommended harvest maturity for the ‘Yilan red’ guava is 112 days. The survey of the impact of harvest maturity (105, 112, and 119 days after anthesis) and storage temperature (25, 20, 10, and 5℃) on ‘Yilan red’ guava covered the impact of decay rate, L, a*, and b* values, respiration rate, and ethylene production. Results show that ‘Yilan red’ guava should be a climacteric fruit. The decay rate of the fruit 105 days after anthesis began to increase only on day 10; the fruit 112 days after anthesis began to increase on day5; the fruit 119 days after anthesis began to increase on day 4. By day 112 and 119 after anthesis, the rate increased simultaneously to 100%. The fruit harvested on day 105 stored under 20℃ after anthesis achieved maximum peel color L value on day 10; the fruit 112 and 119 days after anthesis and stored under 20℃ reached the maximum value by day 5. The peel color a* value of 105, 112, and 119 days after anthesis began to increase after storing for 5 days, 2 days, and 1 day, and the value continued to increase until the end of the experiment. The peel color b* value for days 105, 112, and 119 after anthesis began to increase after 4 days, 2 days, and 1 day, reaching the maximum value by day 10, 5, and 4. The respiration rate of the fruit of 105 days after anthesis began to increase on day 5, reaching the peak by day 9. The ethylene production of the fruit 105 days after anthesis gradually increased after storage, reaching the peak by day 10. The fruit 112 days after anthesis reached the peak on the fourth day, but it slightly declined on day 5 and increased once again the following day, reaching the second peak by day 7. The fruit 119 days after anthesis reached the peak on day 5. The storage temperature results indicate that the decay rate showed a significant increase on day 6 and day 10. On day 6, it was mainly 25℃ and 20℃; on day 10, it was the result of temperature restoration from 10℃ and 5℃. As for the peel color L, a*, and b* value of fruit flesh, it was observed that the fruit of 25℃ increased first, followed by the fruit of 20℃. The fruit stored under 10℃ and 5℃ increased after temperature restoration, but the L and b* value of the fruit of 10℃ failed to show normal increases. The respiration rate of fruit stored increased first in the fruit stored under 25℃, followed by 20℃. The temperatures of 10℃ and 5℃ showed significant increases only after the temperature restoration. For the ethylene production, the fruit of 25℃ and 20℃ also increased first, while the fruit of 10℃ and 5℃ clearly and intensely increased after temperature restoration, the maximum value exceeding the fruit stored under 25℃ and 20℃. Since the storage temperature of 10℃ causes fruit climacteric anomalies and fruit peel browning more serious than those of fruit stored under 5℃, which is the most suitable storage temperature for ‘Yilan red’ guava. The discussion on the 1-MCP experiment covers the impact of three concentrations of 1-MCP treatment (0, 300, 600 nl l-1 ) on the decay rate, weight loss, L, a*, b* value, firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acid, TSS/TA ratio, ascorbic acid, respiration rate, and ethylene production during the ‘Yilan red’ guava fruit storage period. Most of the physiological and biochemical changes during ripening were affected by 1-MCP. However, the results of 2013 and 2014 revealed differed results. In the 2-year experiment, 1-MCP treatment showed significant results in delaying loss of green (increased a* values), delaying loss of firmness, and delaying increases in ethylene production. In the 2013 results, 1-MCP had a significant impact on delaying the a* and b* value increasing, delaying loss of firmness, and delaying increases in ethylene production. However, it had no significant impact on decay rate, weight loss, L value, total soluble solids, titratable acid, and respiration rate. In the 2014 results, 1-MCP showed significant effects on delaying weight loss, L value and a* value increases, delaying loss of firmness, decreases in total soluble solids, and delaying increases in ethylene production. It had less effect on delaying decay rates, increasing b* values, and respiration rates decreasing, without causing a significant impact on titratable acid. The recommended concentration in this experiment is 600 nl l−1.
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