大蒜採收後調理及貯藏技術之研究

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論文名稱: 大蒜採收後調理及貯藏技術之研究
研究生姓名: 陳盈蓁
指導教授姓名: 林慧玲
出版年: 2015
學校名稱: 國立中興大學
系所名稱: 園藝學系所
關鍵字: 大蒜;調理;真空貯藏;garlic;curing;vacuum storage
摘要: 臺灣蒜球主要栽培‘大片黑’品種,採收後之蒜球,一般的室溫通風貯藏,只具6個月貯藏壽命,於秋冬之際溫度降低時,很容易發芽、發根進而引起皺縮、腐爛,若能將蒜球貯藏至隔年的2-3月銜接新的產期,是目前蒜球貯藏技術上主要研究的方向。目前蒜球採收後以人工熱風進行調理,使其失重20-30%再進行貯藏,但經過人工乾燥的蒜瓣,在調理後貯藏過程中常有褐點或黃辦(俗稱熟辦)的情形發生,推測可能和調理溫度過高或時間過長有關。 調理溫度對大蒜之影響試驗,以30℃、35℃、40℃、45℃調理14天,蒜瓣在45℃中調理4天後出現熟辦現象,L*值持續的下降,而其他溫度處理14天後未出現熟瓣狀態,L*值則皆維持在約66,在45℃處理之蒜瓣呼吸率明顯高於其他處理,而30℃、35℃和40℃處理2天呼吸率便快速下降,之後趨於平緩,45℃處理之蒜瓣硬度皆低於2 kg,其他處理則維持在3 kg, 45℃調理大蒜會造成熟瓣之發生,熱風處理溫度低於40℃處理則可避免造成熟瓣而引起採收後損耗現象。熱風調理過的大蒜40℃中的丙酮酸與蒜胺酸含量皆高於30℃處理。調理前期(0-7天)處理35℃、40℃,可以延緩調理後期(8-14天) 處理45℃造成熟瓣率之發生,但無法避免熟瓣發生。調理溫度以40℃為限,乾燥調理後大蒜種播種於20℃中,會隨著調理溫度越高其發芽勢越高,高溫可打破大蒜之休眠性。 低溫真空貯藏對大蒜品質之影響試驗以大蒜‘大片黑’,分別於低溫真空貯藏、低溫網袋貯藏、室溫貯藏 270 天,大蒜在-2℃、-1℃真空貯藏 210 天芽長比約 0.22-0.24 而室溫貯藏之大蒜則為 1.23,真空貯藏 270 天可維持蒜瓣硬度在 3 kg,在-1℃真空貯藏 240 天回溫儲架壽命可達 60 天,網袋貯藏失重率與貯藏時間呈正相關,真空貯藏可以有效控制大蒜貯藏失重以及延長貯藏期。“Ta-Pen-Hey” is a major garlic cultivar in Taiwan. After harvesting, garlic is usually stored at room temperature with air circulation. However, the storage life can only last for 6 months. During autumn and winter, low temperature can induce sprouting and rooting, which in turn results in wrinkled and rotten cloves. The main research goal for garlic storage is therefore to establish methods to prevent sprouting and rooting during autumn and winter storage and to extend the storage life to the next February and March. Currently, garlic bulbs after harvesting were first cured by treating them with hot air until 20-30% of weight loss is achieved before storage. The hot air treated cloves often show brown or yellow spot which may be related to the treatment emperature and the duration of treatment. In this study, garlic bulbs were treated with 30, 35, 40 or 45℃ for 14 days to determine the effect of storage temperature on garlic quality. Our results indicated that when treated at 45℃, bulb hot injury appears at the 4th day and the L* value is constantly decreased as storage duration increases. At other treatment temperatures, bulb decay was not observed and the L* value was maintained at around 66. Garlic cloves showed high respiration rate at 45℃ while rapid decrease in respiration rate was noticed 2 days after being treated at 30, 35, or 40℃. The firmness of the clove was less than 2 kg when treated at 45℃ while a value of 3 kg was observed at the rest treatment temperatures. Garlic cloves showed deteriorated quality when stored at 45℃ while good quality can be maintained at 40℃. The pyruvic acid and alliin contents in garlic were higher when treated at 40℃ compared to those treated at 30℃. Bulb decay was delayed but not prevented when the treatment temperature was 35 or 40℃ for the first 7 days of treatment and then subjected to 45℃ for another 7 days. Under treatments with 30, 35 or 40℃ for 14 days, germination vigor of garlic clove increased as treatment temperature increased suggesting that high temperature may play a role in breaking bulb dormancy. Garlic quality was also compared among low temperature vacuum storage, low temperature net bag storage and room temperature storage for 270 days. The internal sprouting index of cold storage(-2 ℃or -1℃) garlic under vacuum for 210 days was 0.22-0.24, whereas the inernal sprouting index was 1.23 for those under room temperature storage for 210 days. The firmness of the clove was maintained at 3 kg under vacuum storage for 270 days. Sixty days of shelf life was recorded for cold storage (-1℃) garlic under vacuum for 240 days. For garlic stored in net bags, weight loss was positively related to duration of storage. In contrast, vacuum storage can effectively control weight loss of garlic and lengthen the duration of storage.
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