外銷潛力水果產業創新加值鏈

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計畫名稱: 外銷潛力水果產業創新加值鏈
計畫主持人: 湯惟真
共同計畫主持人: 洪挺軒;陳祈男;楊玉婷;吳俊達;陳幼光;倪蕙芳;謝鴻業;李文立;張哲嘉;孫智麗;林慧玲;陸明德;李淑英
計畫編號: 104農科-4.2.1-子-a1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會科技處研究發展科
全程計畫年: 2015
關鍵字: 環境適應性;黃龍病;苗圃;採穗園;酵素標誌抗體法;種原收集;系統性病害;原種園;品質;肥灌;智慧財產權/品種權;簡單重複序列;香蕉萎縮病毒;寒害;講座;GA3果樹;營運模式;氣變包裝;柑橘嫁接傳染病原;灌溉;繁殖圃;種苗;留果數;香蕉組織培養;種原交換;分生組織培養技術;葉綠素螢光反應;柑橘破葉病毒;亞硝酸鹽清除力;胡瓜嵌紋病毒;柑橘健康種苗;柑橘鱗砧類病毒;柑橘萎縮病毒;品種鑑定;柑橘;番石榴;番石榴;果樹;診斷;策略規劃;果樹;園藝;Environmental adaptability;huanglongbing (HLB);nursery;scion stock;Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay;Germplasm collection;systemic diseases;foundation stock;quality;fertigaiton;Intellectual property rights;simple sequence repeat;Banana bunchy top virus;ch
摘要: 果樹海外營運策略規劃研究 本計畫目的在於探討我國具品種新穎性與外銷潛力之果樹品種(如番石榴、荔枝)在與我國反季節之澳大利亞等國家規劃可行之產銷營運模式,研析具潛力熱帶果樹品種、了解其品種權保護制度、與當地品種之特性、品質差異比較,進行產業鏈分析,調查國內現有通路商及具潛力之跨領域營運業者赴海外營運之意願及可能遭遇之困難,提出建議方案,並評估海外消費者對我果樹品種之接受度、通路商之行銷能量、日後銷售地區等,以及評估對國內相關農業產業及國內外市場之影響及整體效益,配合農業委員會果樹與種苗發展相關計畫,建構我國具潛力熱帶果樹於海外產銷營運之完整策略與規劃,促進我國果樹、果品、加工品、種苗、技術外銷及技術提升,尋求新銷售市場及持續供應既有市場之產期缺口,進而提高產業附加價值。 本計畫執行內容及預期效益包括:規劃我國番石榴及荔枝品種赴海外之產業佈局營運模式與策略分析建議,進行澳洲、南非、巴西申請品種權實務操作策略規劃,調查國內潛力業者對我國品種海外營運之意見,舉辦海外營運研討會議、業界訪談及產業座談會議,研提跨國果樹產業營運、外銷之案例及模式分析,探討我國品種之海外生產特性及競爭力,並提出海外營運模式建議。 番石榴外銷核心技術整合及加值運用 番石榴可週年生產,深具外銷潛力之果品,且其營養價值豐富,富含維他命C及礦物質,亞硝酸清除能力、抗氧化物質及抗氧化能力高,為保健水果,未來可躍升及行銷國際市場,但仍存在有待改進之產業問題,像是夏季高溫盛產期果實品質不佳不易貯運保鮮;秋冬季果實品質佳,但產量及供貨不穩。本計畫欲解決上述產業問題,擬訂改善策略,利用網室遮陰、控稍、整枝修剪、限制根域、留果數及改變套袋材質,配合合理化施肥以改進夏果果實糖度低、易軟化及不耐低溫貯運之問題之關鍵技術開發。建立番石榴果實營養成份,及消費者教育以行銷國際市場。低溫檢疫技術及外銷貯運保鮮包裝技術改進,已達外銷不同目標國之需求。包含果實最適成熟度、預冷方法、開發外銷外包裝及果實氣變包裝方法、最適貯運及櫥架溫度。應用分子標記提升品種選育效率,並開發具外銷潛力之優質番石榴品系。包含多元化品種開發,優良品系進行繁植及培育及新開發SSR分子標記進行基因型鑑定及親緣關係分析。採前改善果實品質及優質品種選育,配合採收後保鮮貯運技術,改進整合及加值運用,可成功將臺灣番石榴行銷國際市場。 具外銷潛力的果樹種苗病害診斷、健康管理與繁苗技術鏈之建立與強化 柑橘類果樹是台灣栽培面積最大的果樹,為無性繁殖的作物,此類作物容易受到多種系統性病原(systemic pathogens)的感染危害。台灣重要柑橘系統性病原包括黃龍病細菌、萎縮病毒、破葉病毒與鱗砧類病毒等,這些病原經由帶病種苗普遍傳播而危害嚴重,防治上通常須採用健康管理(Health management)之策略,包括無病種苗之生產與種植,撲滅傳染源,媒介昆蟲之防除及合理化肥培管理等。多年來,台灣防治工作獲有成效,尤其苗期病害防治得宜,至今仍可維持各重要柑橘品種的生產,具備優勢與潛力於未來進行種苗外銷或海外布局。有基於此,本計畫擬先盤點與補強我國柑橘種苗的病害診斷與健康管理各項技術,再將所有研發的相關技術予以整合,構築成套裝技術鏈;並篩選外銷潛力品種,以\\\"客製化\\\"的思考方向,應用這研發的套裝技術鏈促成繁苗效率與品質之最佳化,以達成外銷柑橘種苗之目標。本計畫擬進行4年的研究試驗,本年度(第2年)的具體工作目標包括: (1)原種母樹及繁穗母樹的健康認證;(2) 四大系統性病害整合式快速診斷技術研發;(3) 重要砧木品種抗感病性試驗;(4) 具外銷潛力的柑橘品種的抗感病性試驗;(5) 田間種苗定植與健康管理試驗;(6) 健康柑橘接穗外銷初嘗試。 香蕉優質健康種苗繁苗體系之建立及外銷輸出規劃方面:建立外銷主力華蕉品種及少量外銷之芭蕉品種之種苗無病原檢測工作及生產體系。藉由台蕉健康種苗認證體系及標準繁苗流程之創新規劃,進而推廣民間種苗業者穩定生產健康蕉苗,避免當今全球繁苗產業常見之蕉苗高變異率及品質不一的缺失,並配合國外品種權授權業務,開拓台蕉蕉苗海外新市場。 建立番石榴穩定生產的節水肥灌模式 番石榴雖可利用修剪進行產期調節,周年供貨。但產量及品質除受栽培管理因素影響外,也受氣候因素影響產量及品質的穩定性。內外銷市場常因品質及供貨的不穩定,造成市場價格具大波動,進而影響外銷供貨的穩定與市場開拓。 本計畫擬開發適合臺灣番石榴栽培模式的肥灌技術,配合施肥技術的提升,改善果實生產質量的穩定。 優良果樹種原引進與交換 本計畫將由越方引入荔枝、龍眼、芒果優良品種嫁接苗,並提供越方桃、柿、梨品種接穗供其嫁接。台越雙方皆能互惠於兩國間的重要經濟果樹種原共同評估計畫,並相互交換適應性評估的調查資料。引入的品種可運用於育種計畫的親本或是直接進行果樹產業生產。輸出至越南的品種於越南北部山區開發具經濟價值的果樹產業,改善當地人民生活。 建構柑橘健康種苗外銷供應鏈 本年度將進行東南亞國家栽培面積、產量、種苗需求量與主要品種等資料蒐集,並蒐集主要品種進行病原消除,作為種苗外銷之無病毒種原。此外培育具外銷潛力之主要品種接穗與健康種苗,藉此擴大生產柑橘健康接穗與種苗,逐步補充現階段柑橘種苗需求量,可減低因嫁接傳染病原因種苗造成之傳播危害。 GA3 ( guava, wax apple, pineapple and sugar apple )國際研討會 本計畫擬邀請國外專家學者,分享其國家之3G&A果樹的相關資訊及研究方(包含種原、栽培技術、品種、消費者喜好、採後處理等),對於國內試驗研究單位研究人員進行系列講座及教育訓練,以期提升國內相關研究及從業人員專業智能;並提高GA3等優質有潛力之果樹產業之國際知名度,增加未來國際合作及外銷的機會。A Study on Strategic Planning for Oversea Operation of the Fruit Industry This project is aimed to study the strategic planning for oversea operation of the fruit varieties with novelty and export potentials (ie. Guava, lychee) in counter season countries (ie. Australia, etc.) The potential fruit varieties, their plant variety protection systems, the differences between them and local varieties, and their value chains will be studied. Taiwanese enterprises' willingness to operate overseas and their expected obstacles will be investigated. Foreign consumers' acceptance, distributors' marketing ability, and future markets will be assessed. The overall influence to Taiwan Agribusiness and benefits to global/domestic markets will be evaluated. By working cooperatively with fruit and seedling development projects of COA, the complete strategic planning for oversea operation of Taiwan tropical fruit will be constructed to promote the export of fresh fruits, their processed goods, seedlings, and techniques, to improve techniques, to find new markets, and to sustainably supply the gap in existing oversea markets, thereby to increase the value added of fruit industry. The expected outcomes include: the strategic planning for oversea operation of Taiwan fruit varieties, the application for plant variety protection in counter season countries (ie. Australia, etc), the survey of domestic enterprises to operate oversea, holding forums and interview meetings, studying on multinational operating models, investigating the properties and competency of fruits in oversea markets, and prioritization of the strategic planning for oversea operation of Taiwan fruit varieties. The combined culture operation and postharvest technology for export of guava fruit ‘Jen-Ju Ba’ guava (Psidium guajava L.) is currently the most widely planted cultivar for fresh consumption and export in Taiwan. Poor fruit quality in summer season and high quality and unstable yield in winter season has been reported as the major production constraint; however, the mechanism caused is unclear and the practical trial for improvement this problem is still unavailable. The purpose of this study is to establish the improvement strategies as follow. Field cultivation practice: include overhead shading, root restriction ,increasing the photosynthesis efficiency,pruning, bagging and standarlize fertilization model in guava orchard through diagnosis by leaf and soil analytical methods to increase the fruit quality, transport and storage life in summer.  Establish the healthy nutrient information of guava fruit for extension to international market. Set up the quarantine treatment , export process and preservation postharvest technology: include the optimal precooling, package, MA package, trsport ,storage and shelf temperature. The importance of molecular markers in genotype fingerprinting, SSR markers published and/or newly developed will be used for cultivar identification and relationship analysis. In addition,  diversified development,  genotype will be propagated and planted for cultivated trait.Improve fruit quality before harvest and choose good quality; improve and integrate preservation postharvest technology will sell Taiwan guava to international market in success. Establishment and enhancement of the techniques associated with disease-diagnosis, health management and propagation for seedlings of the fruits with export potential The important systemic pathogens of citrus include Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (the bacteria causing huanglongbing), Citrus tristeza virus, Citrus tatter leaf virus and Citrus exocortis viroid. This project is dedicated to inventory and strengthen various techniques associated with disease-diagnosis and health management, then integrate them into a systemic technology chain. We will be able to select special citrus varieties and apply this technology chain to efficiently produce healthy citrus seedlings for export. The whole project will be conducted for 4 years. Several research items will be executed this year (the second year): (1) certification of foundation stock and propagative trees; (2) 4in1 multiplex PCR/RT-PCR diagnosis for 4 citrus systemic pathogens; (3) evaluation of susceptibility of several important rootstock cultivars for systemic diseases; (4) evaluation of susceptibility of export-potential citrus cultivars for systemic diseases; (5) field trials of health management with several citrus cultivars; (6) attempt of export of healthy citrus scions. The other objective of this study is to establish systems for efficient banana seedling production and for pathogen-free detection process at various stages of seedling production for the major Cavendish bananas and the minor cultivars for export purpose. By means of establishments of the certification system for healthy banana seedling and the standard procedure for seedling propagation, the private seedling producers would be able to produce stable and healthy banana seedlings to lower the offtype rate and the level of inconsistent quality. In addition, Taiwan banana seedlings may have the opportunity to open its overseas market through the overseas authorization. The establishment of annual guava production model Pruning was used in adjusting guava production season and can fruting all the year round. But the yield and fruit quality was not only affect by cultural practice, but also affected by the changing climate. The local and export markets price fluctuation because the quality and supply are very unstable, which affect the stability of export supply and market development. This project aims to develop a unexpensive Taiwan guava fertigation methods and coupled with fertilization improvement to improve the quality of fruit production. Introduction and exchange of elite fruit crop germplasm Grafted seedlings of lychee, longan, and mango will be inroduced to Taiwan. Meanwhile, scions of peach, persimmon, and pear will be sent to Vietnam for grafting. The bilateral cooperation proposal will benefit both nations in improving the varieties and production of economically fruit trees, as well as the development of fruit industry. Also it will assist the development of economically fruit trees in high mountain regions of Northern Vietnam. Establishment of supply chain for exporting healthy citrus nursery plants The project is to collect the data of harvest area, production, demand of seedling and major cultivars of citrus in Southeastern Asia countries. Also major cultivars in Southeastern Asia countries are gathered to produce the pathogen-free seedling for the needs of export. In addition, propagating the scions and healthy nursery plants of the major cultivars which is potential for export could increase the production and supply the demand of citrus seedling gradually to eliminate the citrus grafted-transmitted pathogens. International Smposium on GA3 (guava, wax apple, pineapple and sugar apple) The goal of this project is that invited foregin fruit tree experts to make presentation foucus on 3A&G tropical fruit tree ( pineapple, sugar apple, wax apple and guava), including Germplasm、cultivation technique、variety、customer preference、post harvest) to improve researchers' knowlege, and increase international visiblity. Hopefully, we will have more international cooperation and export chances.
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