|關鍵字： 氣變包裝；第三地市場；系統性病害；番石榴；荔枝；柑橘健康種苗；策略規劃；柑橘；香蕉萎縮病毒；modified atmosphere packaging；the third market；systemic diseases；guava；litchi；healthy citrus nursery plants；Strategic Planning；citrus；Banana bunchy top virus
|摘要： 一、番石榴外銷核心技術整合及加值運用 本年度擬整合數種栽培(套袋、修剪、遮蔭、選種)及貯運(預冷、包裝、溫度管理)技術，建立一套標準化作業流程，供產業操作應用，以提升夏季果實品質。 番石榴可週年生產，為深具外銷潛力之果品，其營養價值豐富，富含維他命C及礦物質，亞硝酸清除能力、抗氧化物質及抗氧化能力高，為保健水果，未來可躍升及行銷國際市場。針對部分國家外銷需檢疫處理如美國、日本等，本年度擬建立低溫檢疫技術及外銷貯運保鮮包裝技術，並改良供果園栽培模式，以擴展外銷市場並提升外銷品質。本年度將根據105年度實際裝櫃海運加拿大試驗結果，微調氣變包裝條件，並擴大試驗樣品數，持續邀約番石榴出口貿易商合作進行實際裝櫃海運外銷市場試驗，以該貿易商現行包裝為對照，藉以展示本試驗成果，期能將技術技轉到產業實際應用。除加拿大外，本年度也將一同進行國產番石榴東南亞新加坡市場實際裝櫃海運試驗，調查不同包裝處理間海運到貨品質與櫥架壽命之差異性。計畫結果將有助於解決外銷番石榴低溫長期貯運劣變問題。 另探討肥灌(fertigation)對'珍珠拔'番石榴田間夏季植株生育與果實品質之影響。以農試所之5年生網室栽培之'珍珠拔'果園植株為材料(或相同條件之果園)，配合其建立之噴、滴灌兩用之水份及液肥噴/滴灌系統，並維持土壤水份於合理夏季水勢閥值之內。嗣於春季修剪後迄夏果採收止，除依番石榴施肥推薦用量施用外(對照組)，並於不同生育期階段額外加施不同N-P-K液肥配方(含微量元素)，以評估其對調控樹勢及果實生育之影響，期能達到抑制過度之營養生長及提昇果實品質之目的。 番石榴品種開發和分子鑑定的部分，進行F2分離族群的性狀調查和SSR分析、遺傳連鎖圖譜的建立及優良選系和雜交種的評估。由一紅肉、更年性、多籽的品系與另一白肉、非更年性、少籽的品系雜交所衍生約120株的F2後代將作為遺傳定位用的族群。除了前述二親本的相對性狀外，這些F2將同時進行抗氧化活性、亞硝酸鹽清除力等其他果實性狀的分析，並以SSR和基因相關標記利用此族群嚐試建立遺傳連鎖圖譜。此外，也將評估優良育種品系和雜交種的果實性狀包括低溫的貯藏性。此研究不僅將有助於番石榴果實相關性狀遺傳的瞭解及分子標記輔助選種策略的發展，也將有利於番石榴種原的開發及應用。二、具外銷潛力的果樹種苗病害診斷、健康管理與繁苗技術鏈之建立與強化 柑橘類果樹是台灣栽培面積最大的果樹，為無性繁殖的作物，此類作物容易受到多種系統性病原(systemic pathogens)的感染危害。台灣重要柑橘系統性病原包括黃龍病細菌、萎縮病毒、破葉病毒與鱗砧類病毒等，這些病原經由帶病種苗普遍傳播而危害嚴重，防治上通常須採用健康管理(Health management)之策略，包括無病種苗之生產與種植，撲滅傳染源，媒介昆蟲之防除及合理化肥培管理等。多年來，台灣防治工作獲有成效，尤其苗期病害防治得宜，至今仍可維持各重要柑橘品種的生產，具備優勢與潛力於未來進行種苗外銷或海外布局。有基於此，本計畫擬先盤點與補強我國柑橘種苗的病害診斷與健康管理各項技術，再將所有研發的相關技術予以整合，構築成套裝技術鏈；並篩選外銷潛力品種，以客製化的思考方向，應用這研發的套裝技術鏈促成繁苗效率與品質之最佳化，以達成外銷柑橘種苗之目標。本計畫擬進行4年的研究試驗，本年度(第4年)的具體工作目標包括： (1) 建立重要柑橘系統性病害的苗期健康管理標準策略；(2) 建構柑橘健康種苗生產核心技術鏈；(3) 針對具外銷潛力的柑橘品種建立田間健康管理策略；(4) 完成十種以上柑橘潛力新品種的頂梢嫁接脫毒；(5) 柑橘重要系統性病害快速檢測技術商品化與技轉；(6) 完成至少一種柑橘種苗外銷或技術輸出海外之實績。 香蕉優質健康種苗繁苗體系之建立及外銷輸出規劃方面，擬建立外銷主力華蕉品種及少量外銷之芭蕉品種之種苗無病原檢測工作及生產體系。藉由台蕉健康種苗認證體系及標準繁苗流程之創新規劃，進而推廣民間種苗業者穩定生產健康蕉苗，避免當今全球繁苗產業常見之蕉苗高變異率及品質不一的缺失，並配合國外品種權授權業務，開拓台蕉蕉苗海外新市場。本年度擬執行下列工作: (1) 「原種圃」之吸芽經組培後育成「採種苗」；(2) 擴大優質香蕉健康種苗之產量達年產300萬株；(3) 耐病品種‘台蕉7號’國外品種權申請及在地適應性評估；(4) 國外具潛力之蕉種組織培養繁苗技術之研發。三、建構東南亞柑橘主要品種健康種苗生產體系 本年度持續蒐集主要品種進行病原消除，作為種苗外銷之無病毒種原。此外培育具外銷潛力之主要品種接穗與健康種苗，藉此擴大生產柑橘健康接穗與種苗，逐步補充現階段柑橘種苗需求量，可減低因嫁接傳染病原因種苗造成之傳播危害。並評估健康種苗商業輸出模式與海外生產基地之可行性，整合健康種苗生產技術、柑橘病害檢測技術與田間病蟲害防治技術，建立「柑橘黃龍病共同防治體系」系統，作為將來海外商業輸出之主要模式。四、果樹海外營運策略規劃研究 農委會番石榴團隊開發中、長程海運貯運技術，與柑橘、香蕉健康種苗團隊之去病毒技術成效良好，惟海外輸出技術之成本、效益分析及對產業價值鏈等商業模式仍有待進一步評估，俾利儘早輔導產業升級。另為因應我國推動新南向政策、以及掌握農業經貿發展趨勢對我國果樹產業之影響，實有必要持續觀察東協、南亞、紐澳等國的果樹產銷發展現況，擇定具國際合作潛力國家分析其可能之海外營運或價值鏈合作模式，以提出我國新南向政策之果樹產業國際化發展策略，強化我國果樹產業因應區域經貿整合之國際競爭力。五、臺灣荔枝於澳大利亞昆士蘭州試種計畫 荔枝是臺灣廣泛栽培的重要果樹作物之一，然而荔枝產期短、容易造成產銷失衡問題，提振部份外銷是改善國內供銷價格的一項方針，而這需要經營良好的貿易基礎。未來，建立生產同盟將是我們發展的重點工作，而對荔枝產業而言澳大利亞將是合作目標首選。在昆士蘭所採收的荔枝可於1–2月，也就是在關鍵的農曆新年前或期間上市。此外，澳大利亞未來將投注的開發的北澳地區，亦是適合發展荔枝產業的區域。另一方面，臺灣具有新穎品種、以及相關品種知識等優勢，提供我方與澳大利亞農業合作機會。本年度將完成澳大利亞輸入後檢疫(PEQ)工作並籌畫試種基地，並且制栽培特定新品種的問題排除與採收標準等。配合4年期計畫執行，於109年前完成建置昆士蘭荔枝生產基地。一、The Combined Culture Operation and Postharvest Technology for Export of Guava Fruit In this year, several cultivation techniques (bagging, pruning, shading, seed selection), storage and transportation (precooling, packaging and temperature management) will be integrated to establish a standardized operation process for industrial operation and application in order to enhance fruit quality in summer. Guava ( Psidium guajavaL.) fruits can be produced all year around and are rich in vitamin C and mineral elements. Its ability of removing nitrite and antioxidant capacity are high, so guava fruits can be exported to international markets. Guava need to be quarantined in some countries, such as America and Japan. In this year, we plan to set up the transport protocol, combining low temperature quarantine treatment and low temperature storage during shipping. We also set up the optimum guava culture system for export. Establish the technique of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for guava may help decrease chilling injury and maintain fruit quality. According to the results of container transportation experiments done in 2016, the MAP condition(s) will be modified if needed as well as will be continue to cooperate with export company to conduct scale-up container transportation experiment in 2017. The packaging used by the cooperated partner(s) will be utilized as the control and to demonstrate the benefit of MAP to the trader for considering adaptation the technique in the industry. In addition to Canada, container transportation experiments for Singapore will be performed in 2017 to investigate the effects of different packaging treatments on fruit quality and shelf-life of ‘Jan-Ju Bar’ guava after arrival. The results of this project will be beneficial for improving the deteriorations caused by long-term cold transportation in guava. For the pre-harvest part, the purpose of this research aimed to evaluate different strengths of fertigation in plant growth, fruit yield and its quality at harvest during summer season of 5-years-old field grown ‘Jen-Ju Ba’ guava trees. The study equips a micro-sprinkler irrigation system for guava orchard established by TARI, which can maintain the ideal values of soil water content, -20 to -40 cb associated with additional applications of different ratio and strength of NPK nutrient soluble fertilizers with micro-elements, following the traditional recommended fertilizer dose for guava. The traditional recommended fertilizer dose for guava is used for the control. From the results we obtained, a substantial mineral management for guava orchard to produce superior fruit quality in term of inhibiting excess vegetative growth and regulating fruit development could be developed in Taiwan accordingly. For cultivar developing and molecular identification, the bojectives of this study include the trait characterization and SSR analysis of an F 2population, construction of a genetic linkage map, and evaluation of elected genotypes and hybrids in guava. An F 2population with 120 progenies derived from the cross between a red-flesh, climacteric, seeded line and a white-flesh, non-climacteric, seedless line will be used as the mapping population. Except for the contrasting traits of the parental lines mentioned above, other fruit characteristics including antioxidant capacity and nitrite scavenging ability will be assessed. The construction of a genetic linkage map using SSR and gene derived markers will also be attempted. In addition, fruit characteristics of the elite breeding lines and hybrids will be evaluated including low-temperature storability. This study will not only help the understanding of the genetics of fruit related traits and development of marker-assisted selection strategy in guava, but also contribute to the exploration and application of guava germplasm.二、Establishment and enhancement of the techniques associated with disease-diagnosis, health management and propagation for seedlings of the fruits with export potential Citrus is an important crop with the widest cultivated areas among fruit trees in Taiwan.The important systemic pathogens infecting citrus such asCandidatusLiberibacter asiaticus (the bacteria causing citrus huanglongbing),Citrus tristeza virus ,Citrus tatter leaf virusandCitrus exocortis viroidcaused serious diseases and bring tremendous losses to the citrus industry. The good control strategies against these diseases are based on the principles of“health management” including the production and cultivation of pathogen-free seedlings, elimination of inoculum sources, control of vector insects, and appropriate fertilizer application. These systemic diseases have impacted the citrus industry for many years in Taiwan. However, we developed various methods of diagnosis and control for these diseases and achieved some satisfactory results in the citrus protection. We do have the strength and potential to plan the export and oversea arrangement of citrus seedlings in the near future. Therefore, this project is dedicated to inventory and strengthenvarious techniques associated with disease-diagnosis and health management,then integrate them into a systemic technology chain. We will be able to selectspecial citrus varieties and apply this technology chain to efficiently produce healthy citrus seedlings for export. The whole project will be conducted for 4 years. Several research items will be executed this year (the fourth year): (1) establishment of SOP for controlling important systemic diseases of citrus nursery; (2) construction of core technology chain for production of pathogen-free citrus seedlings; (3) development of efficient methods of health management for citrus plants in the field; (4) acquisition of new and pathogen-free cultivars of citrus through shoot-tip grafting (at least 10 cultivars); (5) commercialization and technology-transfer of rapid diagnostic kits for important systemic diseases of citrus; (6) execution of export of healthy citrus seedlings and the other techniques. The other objective of this study is toestablish systems for efficient banana seedling production and for pathogen-free detection process at various stages of seedling production for the major Cavendish bananas and the minor cultivars for export purpose. By means of establishments of the certification system for healthy banana seedling and the standard procedure for seedling propagation, the private seedling producers would be able to produce stable and healthy banana seedlings to lower the offtype rate and the level of inconsistent quality. In addition, Taiwan banana seedlings may have the opportunity to open its overseas market through the overseas authorization. The targets we will conduct this year are (1) establishment of banana stock plants for propagation derived from original mother trees of banana through tissue culture; (2) mass-production of pathogen-free banana seedlings (up to 3,000,000 seedlings per year); (3) applying variety rights for TB 7 banana (a new variety ofbanana named Taiwan Banana No. 7 with high tolerance against Panama disease); (4) acquirement and propagation of newly foreign banana varieties.三、Establishment of production system of healthy citrus nursery plants of Southeast asia The project is to collect the data of harvest area, production, demand of seedling and major cultivars of citrus in Southeastern Asia countries. Also major cultivars in Southeastern Asia countries are gathered to produce the pathogen-free seedling for the needs of export. In addition, propagating the scions and healthy nursery plants of the major cultivars which is potential for export could increase the production and supply the demand of citrus seedling gradually to eliminate the citrus grafted transmitted pathogens. In addition, the exporting model of citrus healthy nursery trees and the establishment of oversea production center are evaluated. Finally, “Citrus Huanglongbing integrate management system” is established by combining production technique of citrus healthy nursery trees, citrus pathogen testing and pest management, which as the main exporting model in the future.四、A Study on Strategic Planning for Oversea Operation of the Fruit Industry In the development of thepsidium guajavateam of the Council of Agriculture, the effects of middle- to long-range marine storage technology and virus elimination technology of the orange and banana health seeding team have been very good. However, the cost effect analysis of overseas export technology and the industrial value chain require further evaluation to facilitate industrial upgrade as soon as possible. Pursuant to our New Southern Policy and to seize the opportunities of agricultural and economic development trends in our fruit tree industry, we must continuously observe current fruit tree production and sales development in ASEAN, South Asia, New Zealand, Australia, and other select countries with potential for international cooperation to analyze their overseas operations and value chain cooperation models in order to propose development strategies for our country in terms of fruit tree industry globalization under the New Southern Policy and consolidate the international competitiveness of our fruit tree industry in line with regional economic and trading integration. 五、Novel Litchi Trial Planting in Queensland, Australia Litchi is one of the most important fruit trees widely grown in Taiwan. Short marketing periods of the fruit, however, resulted in unbalance between supply and domestic demand. Exportation of parts of fruit was expected to improve the commercial values of litchi in domestic market. The well-managed trading basis were therefore required.Construction of the production alley is the major goal in the future, and Australia is the best target for the litchi industry. The late-maturing litchi harvested in Queensland can be supplied in January to February,before or during the Lunar New Year, the key market around year.Moreover, Australian Government aim to develop the North Australia, where very suitable for litchi cultivation, in the following decades. One the other hand, we have innovative cultivars and operation knowledge of the litchi. These provide great opportunities for agricultural cooperation between Australia and Taiwan. We will arrange the planting bases in Australia for the exported plant materials which proceeded with post entry quarantine (PEQ) in 2017. The harvest criteria and the trouble shooting of growing certain litchi cultivars in Taiwan will be designed as well. We expect to accomplish the operation base in Queensland along with the performance of the 4-year project in 2020.