外銷潛力水果產業創新加值鏈

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計畫名稱: 外銷潛力水果產業創新加值鏈
計畫主持人: 湯惟真
共同計畫主持人: 林慧玲;邱展臺;邱祝櫻;趙治平;官青杉;李文豪;黃世宏;陳思如;江一蘆;梁佑慎;陳京城;羅惠萍;張春梅;黃士晃;吳俊達;蔣世超;邱國棟;李雪如;張錦興;張栢滄;張哲嘉;李文立;李淑英;謝慶昌
計畫編號: 105農科-4.2.1-子-a1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會科技處研究發展科
全程計畫年: 2016
關鍵字: 種原收集;分子標記輔助選種;氣變包裝;番石榴;香蕉萎縮病毒;策略規劃;營運模式;柑橘破葉病毒;果實貯藏性;果樹;種原交換;柑橘萎縮病毒;柑橘健康種苗;黃龍病;柑橘鱗砧類病毒;Germplasm collection;marker-assisted selection;modified atmosphere packaging;guava;Banana bunchy top virus;Strategic Planning;Business Model;Citrus tatter leaf virus;fruit storability;Fruits;Germplasm exchange;Citrus tristeza virus;healthy citrus nursery
摘要: 番石榴外銷核心技術整合及加值運用 番石榴可週年生產,是為深具外銷潛力之果品,且其營養價值豐富,富含維他命C及礦物質,亞硝酸清除能力、抗氧化物質及抗氧化能力高,為保健水果,未來可躍升及行銷國際市場。針對部分國家需外銷檢疫處理如美國,本年度擬建立低溫檢疫技術及外銷貯運保鮮包裝技術並進行大量試驗,以達外銷不同目標國之需求。同時利用氣變包裝技術,降低寒害腐損率及維持品質,以‘珍珠’番石榴裝櫃後海運至加拿大,並以現行番石榴外銷包裝為對照,調查產品運抵加拿大市場到貨品質與櫥架壽命之差異。採前品質對採後貯運保鮮影響甚鉅,如夏季高溫盛產期,果實品質不佳,不易貯運保鮮;秋冬季果實品質佳,但產量及供貨不穩。本計畫欲解決上述產業問題,擬訂改善策略,建立‘珍珠’番石榴植株光合作用之基礎生理資料,繼而發展提高葉片光合效能之栽培管理策略,如整枝、修剪、留梢以增加樹冠光截取等,配合肥培及控梢、套袋技術,俾穩定週年生產與提高果實品質。為提升新品種選育效率而達品種多樣化之外銷品項,以F2分離族群的性狀調查、分子標記的應用及優良選系果實貯藏性的評估,有助於番石榴果實相關性狀遺傳的瞭解及分子標記輔助選種的發展,也將有利於新品種研發推廣及應用。綜合上述關鍵技術,結合採前改善果實品質之栽培方法及優質品種多樣化選育,配合採收後保鮮貯運技術,改進整合及加值運用,可成功將臺灣番石榴行銷國際市場。 </LI><LI>建構東南亞柑橘主要品種健康種苗生產體系<BR>    本年度持續蒐集主要品種進行病原消除,作為種苗外銷之無病毒種原。此外培育具外銷潛力之主要品種接穗與健康種苗,藉此擴大生產柑橘健康接穗與種苗,逐步補充現階段柑橘種苗需求量,可減低因嫁接傳染病原因種苗造成之傳播危害。並評估健康種苗商業輸出模式與海外生產基地之可行性,整合健康種苗生產技術、柑橘病害檢測技術與田間病蟲害防治技術,建立「柑橘黃龍病共同防治體系」系統,作為將來海外商業輸出之主要模式。</LI><LI>具外銷潛力的果樹種苗病害診斷、健康管理與繁苗技術鏈之建立與強化<BR>    柑橘類果樹是台灣栽培面積最大的果樹,為無性繁殖的作物,此類作物容易受到多種系統性病原(systemic pathogens)的感染危害。台灣重要柑橘系統性病原包括黃龍病細菌、萎縮病毒、破葉病毒與鱗砧類病毒等,這些病原經由帶病種苗普遍傳播而危害嚴重,防治上通常須採用健康管理(Health management)之策略,包括無病種苗之生產與種植,撲滅傳染源,媒介昆蟲之防除及合理化肥培管理等。多年來,台灣防治工作獲有成效,尤其苗期病害防治得宜,至今仍可維持各重要柑橘品種的生產,具備優勢與潛力於未來進行種苗外銷或海外布局。有基於此,本計畫擬先盤點與補強我國柑橘種苗的病害診斷與健康管理各項技術,再將所有研發的相關技術予以整合,構築成套裝技術鏈;並篩選外銷潛力品種,以客製化的思考方向,應用這研發的套裝技術鏈促成繁苗效率與品質之最佳化,以達成外銷柑橘種苗之目標。本計畫擬進行4年的研究試驗,本年度(第3年)的具體工作目標包括: (1) 柑橘黃龍病、萎縮病、破葉病與鱗砧病新研發的整合式快速診斷技術進行國外學術論文發表;(2) 持續針對重要柑橘原種母樹與繁殖母樹進行健康檢查;(3) 針對各重要的砧木品種完成整體性優缺點評估;(4) 挑選外國特有或國內民間收集的優良柑橘品種進行頂梢嫁接脫毒;(5) 針對具外銷潛力的柑橘品種進行整體性優缺點評估;(6) 持續進行田間柑橘種苗定植與健康管理試驗;(7) 健康柑橘接穗輸外或援外;(8) 透過國際合作獲得各國具國際市場潛力的特殊柑橘新品種。<BR>    香蕉優質健康種苗繁苗體系之建立及外銷輸出規劃方面,建立外銷主力華蕉品種及少量外銷之芭蕉品種之種苗無病原檢測工作及生產體系,藉由台蕉健康種苗認證體系及標準繁苗流程之創新規劃,進而推廣民間種苗業者穩定生產健康蕉苗,避免當今全球繁苗產業常見之蕉苗高變異率及品質不一的缺失,並配合國外品種權授權業務,開拓台蕉蕉苗海外新市場。</LI><LI>果樹海外營運策略規劃研究<BR>    本計畫目的在於探討我國具品種新穎性與外銷潛力之果樹新品種,與我國反季節生產之國家,如南非、巴西與澳大利亞等國及其他具合作潛力夥伴,尋找研發成果於我國國土外進行運用之可能合作夥伴,並就未來可能運用之研發成果項目、範疇與運用方式,進一步探討與規劃可行方案,並研析我國果樹新品種海外運用,對國內農業產業及國內外市場之影響評估,包括所影響之農業產業別及該研發成果用途說明、運用之國家或地區、運用期間等資料,俾供我國果樹研發成果海外布局與產業規劃政策研議之參考。<BR>    為掌握未來我國加入區域經貿整合的腳步、以及農業經貿深度自由化對我國果樹產業之影響,實有必要持續觀察跨太平洋夥伴關係協定(TPP)、區域全面經濟夥伴協定(RCEP)進展並事先收集會員國果樹產銷資訊進行研究分析,擇定具國際合作潛力國家分析其可能之海外營運或價值鏈合作模式,以提出我國加入TPP與RCEP之果樹產業因應策略、來強化我國果樹產業因應區域經貿整合之國際競爭力。 </LI><LI>優良果樹種原引進與交換-荔枝、龍眼、芒果品種隔離檢疫與繁殖 本計畫將由越方引入荔枝、龍眼、芒果優良品種嫁接苗,並提供越方桃、柿、梨品種接穗供其嫁接。台越雙方皆能互惠於兩國間的重要經濟果樹種原共同評估計畫,並相互交換適應性評估的調查資料。引入的品種可運用於育種計畫的親本或是直接進行果樹產業生產。輸出至越南的品種於越南北部山區開發具經濟價值的果樹產業,改善當地人民生活。The Combined Culture Operation and Postharvest Technology for Export of Guava Fruit<BR>    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruits can be produced all year around and are rich in vitamin C and mineral elements. Its ability of removing nitrite and antioxidant capacity are high, so guava fruits can be exported to international markets. Guava need to be quarantined in some countries, such as America. In this year, we plan to set up the quarantine procrdure, export process and preservation postharvest technology and to establish the technique of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) applyied to maintain the exporting quality of Taiwan produced guava fruits during postharvest period. The optimum conditions obtained from previous results as well as current exporting package of export guava will be applied to ‘Jan-Ju’ guava before transporting to Canada by marine containers. There is a significant effect of preharvest quality on postharvest storage and preservation, for example, poor fruit quality in summer season and high quality but unstable yield in winter season have been reported as the major production constraints; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear and the practical practice to improve this problem is still unavailable. The project aims to solve these problems and to set up the practical strategies. PS II efficiency will be examined to further clarify the characteristics of light reaction under all procedure mentioned above. Based on optimization of leaf photosynthesis, a potential orchard cultivation strategy for producing superior fruit quality and stabilizing yearly yield could be developed in Taiwan. The strategies include purning, controlling new shoots and bagging technique to obtain stable yield and to improve the fruits quality at summer season. Molecular markers in genotype fingerprinting and SSR markers published and/or newly developed will be used for cultivar identification and relationship analysis . The trait characterization of a F2 population, application of molecular markers, and storability evaluation will be preformed to select new genotypes in guava. This study will not only help to understand of the genetics of fruit-related traits and to develop marker-assisted selection in guava, but also contribute to the promotion and application of the new cultivars. In addition, diversified, genotypes will first selected be propagated and then cultivated with improvement of fruit quality before harvest and integration of preservation and postharvest technology. International markets for Taiwan’s guava will be successfully opened.</LI><LI>Establishment of production system of healthy citrus nursery plants of Southeast asia<BR>    The project is to collect the data of harvest area, production, demand of seedling and major cultivars of citrus in Southeastern Asia countries. Also major cultivars in Southeastern Asia countries are gathered to produce the pathogen-free seedling for the needs of export. In addition, propagating the scions and healthy nursery plants of the major cultivars which is potential for export could increase the production and supply the demand of citrus seedling gradually to eliminate the citrus grafted transmitted pathogens. In addition, the exporting model of citrus healthy nursery trees and the establishment of oversea production center are evaluated. Finally, “Citrus Huanglongbing integrate management system” is established by combining production technique of citrus healthy nursery trees, citrus pathogen testing and pest management, which as the main exporting model in the future.</LI><LI>Establishment and enhancement of the techniques associated with disease-diagnosis, health management and propagation for seedlings of the fruits with export potential<BR>    The important systemic pathogens of citrus include <I>Candidatus</I> Liberibacter asiaticus (the bacteria causing huanglongbing), <I>Citrus tristeza virus</I>, <I>Citrus tatter leaf virus</I> and <I>Citrus exocortis viroid</I>. This project is dedicated to inventory and strengthen various techniques associated with disease-diagnosis and health management, then integrate them into a systemic technology chain. We will be able to select special citrus varieties and apply this technology chain to efficiently produce healthy citrus seedlings for export. The whole project will be conducted for 4 years. Several research items will be executed this year (the third year):(1) development and paper-publication of integrated multiplex PCR/RT-PCR diagnostic techniques for 4 citrus systemic pathogens; (2) continuous health-certification of foundation stock and propagative trees; (3) complete evaluation of susceptibility of several important rootstock cultivars for systemic diseases; (4) elimination of systemic pathogens from important foreign and domestic citrus cultivars; (5) experiment of susceptibility of export-potential citrus cultivars for systemic diseases; (6) continuous field trials of health management with several citrus cultivars; (7) attempt of export of healthy citrus scions; (8) acquisition of unique foreign citrus cultivars through international cooperation.<BR>    The other objective of this study is to establish systems for efficient banana seedling production and for pathogen-free detection process at various stages of seedling production for the major Cavendish bananas and the minor cultivars for export purpose. By means of establishments of the certification system for healthy banana seedling and the standard procedure for seedling propagation, the private seedling producers would be able to produce stable and healthy banana seedlings to lower the offtype rate and the level of inconsistent quality. In addition, Taiwan banana seedlings may have the opportunity to open its overseas market through the overseas authorization.</LI><LI>A Study on Strategic Planning for Oversea Operation of the Fruit Industry<BR>    This project is aimed to study the strategic planning for oversea operation of the fruit varieties with novelty and export potentials in counter season countries (ie. South Africa, Brazil, Australia, etc.) The item, category and utilizing information of fruit R&D results will be discussed and plan for feasible operations. The potential fruit varieties, their plant variety protection systems, the differences between them and local varieties, and their value chains will be studied. The overall influence to Taiwan Agribusiness and benefits to global/domestic markets will be evaluated. <BR>    In order to participate in regional economic integration, the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the ASEAN Framework for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) will be studied and continuously observed. By gathering and analyzing the market information of member states of TPP and RCEP, the planning for oversea operation and value chain cooperation mode of Taiwan fruit will be constructed. In the meantime promote the international competitiveness of fresh fruits industry and strengthen the strategy in response to regional economic integration. <BR>    The expected outcomes include: the strategic planning for oversea operation of Taiwan fruit varieties, studying on multinational operating models, investigating the properties and competency of fruits in TPP and RCEP member states markets, and prioritization of the strategic planning for oversea operation of Taiwan fruit varieties. </LI><LI>Introduction and exchange of elite fruit crop germplasm - quarantine and reproduction of lychee, longan, and mango cultivars.<BR>    Grafted seedlings of lychee, longan, and mango will be inroduced to Taiwan. Meanwhile, scions of peach, persimmon, and pear will be sent to Vietnam for grafting. The bilateral cooperation proposal will benefit both nations in improving the varieties and production of economically fruit trees, as well as the development of fruit industry. Also it will assist the development of economically fruit trees in high mountain regions of Northern Vietnam.
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