外銷標竿品項開發新市場關鍵技術延伸

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計畫名稱: 外銷標竿品項開發新市場關鍵技術延伸
計畫主持人: 官青杉
共同計畫主持人: 林慧玲;鍾曉航;劉依昌;黃基倬;唐佳惠;方煒;吳俊達;杜元凱;梁佑慎
計畫編號: 110農科-15.1.3-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所嘉義農業試驗分所園藝系
全程計畫年: 2021
關鍵字: 釋迦;印度棗;巴斯德效應;氣變包裝;採收時間;番石榴;小果番茄;楊桃;氣調貯藏;百香果;寒害;櫥架壽命;計算流體力學模擬;壓差預冷;預冷技術;採前管理;鳳梨;sugar apple;indian jujube;Pasteur effect;Modified Atmosphere Packaging;harvest time;guava;Grape Tomatoes;star fruit;controlled atmosphere storage;passion fruit;Chilling injury;Shelf life;Computational Fluid Dynamics;Forced-air Cooling;precooling technolog
摘要: (1)重要外銷果品氣調及氣變保鮮貯運條件之建立:台灣外銷水果多以熱帶水果為主,但熱帶水果通常不耐低溫貯藏,易造成果實寒害而降低貯運壽命,同時果實在採收後仍具有生命,會持續新陳代謝活動,如呼吸作用和後熟作用,直至老化和死亡,而生理劣變導致採收後果實品質劣化,如外觀褐化、果肉軟化、風味改變及營養價值的下降。運用改變貯藏水果環境氣體組成,使產品貯藏於高濃度CO<SUB>2</SUB>及低濃度O<SUB>2</SUB>環境下,可減緩果品代謝及延後果品後熟老化進而達到保鮮之效果。然而,各項果品利用氣變包裝時常因產品發生無氧呼吸而造成酒精或乙醛之累積而影響果實風味。因此本計畫之目的為尋找目前台灣5樣重要外銷水果—番石榴、楊桃、釋迦、百香果、印度棗之最低可耐氧氣濃度和最高可耐二氧化碳濃度,以此建立外銷果品氧氣及二氧化碳臨界無氧呼吸濃度條件與生理指標,並進行模擬外銷試驗,完善外銷果品外銷氣調貯運與主動氣變方法及流程,且將數據提供氣調貯藏或氣變包裝精準調控之參考,進而設計氣調貯藏及氣變包裝之條件,建立重要外銷果品高CO<SUB>2</SUB>低O<SUB>2</SUB>氣調貯藏臨界值及相關生理反應之資料庫,可提供氣調貯藏或氣變包裝精準調控之參考,其為台灣水果外銷不可或缺之關鍵技術。(2)建立番石榴長程運輸預冷技術與產銷貯運保鮮冷鏈標準化:番石榴具週年生產的特性,目前外銷量逐年增加,每月均有出口,為提升外銷競爭力,穩定供貨品質及供貨量是必要條件,主要外銷國家為加拿大等地。近期美國已准許臺灣番石榴進入該國,在外銷上如何維持果實品質,是目前重要的課題。台灣外銷番石榴,常因夏季氮肥施用過多,高溫多濕,果實生長快速,造成果實品質不佳,而使外銷果品到貨品質因果皮褐化、果心軟化等劣變造成高腐損率。造成主要損耗之關鍵因素為果實田間熱未快速進行去除,因而影響長程運輸之到貨品質。為快速去除田間熱可從幾個方面下手,其一影響因子為採收時間,不同採收時間可影響果實田間熱的累積量,如清晨採收,則田間熱累積量較低。另外可以利用預冷技術(如室冷、水冷、壓差預冷、冰冷等),將果實的田間熱快速去除,但因番石榴果實果皮結構脆弱,不當的處理方式極為容易造成表皮受傷,進而使果實腐爛,因此擇一最佳預冷方式尤其重要。本計畫擬針對田間採收時間、採收至集貨場運輸時程、預冷技術、包裝方式及規劃溫度管理,進行從田間到消費端冷鏈外銷流程標準化,期能提升夏季番石榴長程外銷貯運品質及其產值,並開發新興外銷市場,提升帶動整個番石榴產業的價值。108年美國開放台灣番石榴准入,其低溫檢疫條件重新訂定為果心溫度1℃17天,因此船運期間貯運之溫度管理需重新試驗檢測,期能符合低溫檢疫之需求,且到貨果品仍可維持優質狀態,以訂定台灣番石榴果實輸美標準作業流程。(3)建立印度棗預冷技術及長程貯運標準化作業流程:預冷(procooling)是農園產品低溫冷鏈的開端,印度棗產期在1-3月,採收期的環境溫度較低,果實採後預冷常被忽略。109年研究計畫顯示,印度棗採後若確實且立即執行室內風冷(room cooling)或壓差預冷(forced air cooling)作業,可有效延緩印度棗果實貯藏後期腐損率的增加。為此,本年度(110年)研究計畫欲建立印度棗壓差預冷技術之基礎資料,以及採後果實溫度管理對果實貯運特性影響評估,並建立金桃和高雄11號印度棗果實長程貯運之採後處理作業流程,改善集貨場包裝場之作業缺口,進一步提升外銷市場到貨品質。(4)建置小果番茄外銷最佳海運及併櫃商業運轉模式:國產小果番茄糖度高風味佳,具有競爭力,但採後處理條件尚未系統性建置。本計畫目的在探討外銷小果番茄最適氣調大氣組成,發展氣變包裝技術,建立小果番茄最佳貯運條件。再藉應用計算流體力學軟體,輔助設計預冷效果增強之零售盒、紙箱及單棧板壓差預冷設備,縮短預冷時間、減少果粒溫差,提升預冷效率,強化保鮮效果,延長產品壽命,期能拓展東南亞國際市場。並藉由冷藏庫貯藏與裝櫃海運外銷目標市場先導型試驗,驗證計劃成果,以利技轉運用於小果番茄外銷產業採後處理流程,紓緩國內盛產價跌壓力。(5)鳳梨採收集運與全程貯運冷鏈技術之建立:為評估冷鏈之建置對鳳梨採收後果實品質及貯藏性、對減少果實自集貨至消費端損耗之影響及對減緩果實品質劣變速率等採後處理相關問題之影響,本計畫擬進行模擬運輸試驗,探討冷鏈之需求急迫性,改善集運過程果實處於高溫狀態,並於選別至分級流程以簡易措施快速降溫至低於包裝場室溫,並研發降低鳳梨果梗創口污染及腐損比率之技術,期能了解採收後全程冷鏈對提升鳳梨果實品質之必要性,維持果品品質以穩定臺灣鳳梨產業,提升國際競爭力。(6)蓮霧黑糖芭比外銷冷鏈技術建立:建立蓮霧台農3號(黑糖芭比)全年供貨模式,藉由各產地果品品質調查,建立本品種供貨規格及供應鏈。另以小樣本空運模式,調查各外銷市場需求規格,串聯外銷業者增加開發新興市場,增加本品種外銷量。另進行模擬海運併櫃低溫冷藏測試,探討可延長果品冷藏時間之有效方式,並建立果品冷藏後最佳櫥架方式,建立本品種海、空運後果品最佳外銷冷鏈模式。(7)小果番茄採前管理技術對低溫儲運之影響評估:本計畫調查臺灣小果番茄3個商業品種低溫忍受力調查,期能選拔出1個優良品種適合外銷使用;建立設施小果番茄採前管理技術,進行設施內部遮蔭試驗及土壤水分試驗,生產優質小果番茄,降低番茄異常果實(臍腐果、不正常轉色、不正常後熟及裂果)發生率;配合保鮮劑的使用,提高番茄果品櫥架壽命。(1)Control Atmosphere Storage and Modified Atmosphere Package Technology for Important Export Fruits:In Taiwan, major of exported fruits are tropical fruits, however, tropical fruits are often not resistant to low temperature storage, for cold damage and reduced storage and transportation life are easy to occur under low temperature conditions. At the same time, the fruit is alive even after harvest and continues its metabolic activities such as respiration and ripening until decreased and death. The physiological deterioration leads to deterioration of fruit quality after harvesting, such as browning of the appearance, softening of the flesh, change of flavor and decline of nutritional value. By changing the atmospheric composition of the storage environment such as high CO<SUB>2</SUB> and low O<SUB>2</SUB> may slow down the metabolism and ripening of the fruit to achieve the goal of preservation. However, when fruits are subjected to modified atmosphere packaging, the accumulation of alcohol or acetaldehyde is often observed due to anaerobic respiration of the product which in turn affects the flavor of the fruit. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the minimum oxygen concentration and the maximum carbon dioxide concentration  for controlled atmosphere storage or modified atmosphere package of five important export fruits in Taiwan, such as guava, carambola, sugar apple, passion fruit, and Indian jujube. These results may then be applied to establish.  The threshold concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in anaerobic respiration and physiological indicator for the export of fruits. Meanwhile, simulated export tests are performed to improve the methods and processes of modified atmosphere storage for the export. These data may be used as a reference for the precise regulation of controlled atmosphere storage or modified atmosphere packaging, and then the conditions for controlled atmosphere storage and modified atmosphere packaging may be determined. These data may also be utilized to  establish a database of threshold values of  high CO<SUB>2</SUB> and low O<SUB>2 </SUB>concentration for controlled atmosphere storage and related physiological responses, which may then be used as a reference for the precise regulation of controlled atmosphere storage or modified atmosphere packaging, and developed into an indispensable key technology for export of fruits in Taiwan .(2)Precooling Methods and Innovation Postharvest Handing and Cold Chain of Guava Long-distance Transportation: Guava has the characteristics of year-round production, and the export quantity is increasing year by year, with monthly export. In order to enhance the competitiveness of export , stable  quality and supply are necessary requirements. The main export country of guava is Canada. Recently, the United States has permitted Taiwan's guava to enter the country, therefore how to maintain fruit quality for export is an important issue at this moment. Due to excess nitrogen fertilizer, high temperature and humidity, and rapid fruit growth in summer, poor fruit quality often encountered. Export fruit has high corrosion rate related to inferior changes such as skin browning and pulp softening. The key factor causing the main loss is the failure to remove the field heat rapidly, thus affecting the guava fruit quality during long distance export. In order to rapidly remove the field heat, several aspects may be considered. One of the key factors is the harvesting time. Different harvesting time can affect the accumulation of field heat, for example, accumulation of field heat is lower when harvested in early morning. In addition, pre-cooling technologies (such as room cooling, hydro cooling, differential pressure pre-cooling, ice cooling, etc.) can be used to rapidly remove the field heat of the fruit. However, due to the fragile structure of the guava fruit peel, improper treatment is extremely easy to damage the skin, which in turn causes the rotten fruit. Therefore, it is essential to choose the best pre-cooling method. This study evaluates the field harvest time, the transport time from harvest to the collection yard, the pre-cooling technology, the packaging method and the temperature management to standardize the cold chain export process from the field to the consumer side. It is expected to improve the fruit quality and value of summer guava for long distance export, to develop the emerging export market, and to enhance the value of the guava industry. The United States approved the import of guava from Taiwan in 2019. The low temperature quarantine requirements are reset as 1 ℃ fruit core temperature for  17 days. The temperature management during storage and transportation needs to be re-tested with hope to meet the requirements of low temperature quarantine, to maintain high fruit quality after transportation, and to set up the standard operating procedures for guava exported to the United States. (3)Established Indian jujube pre-cooling technology and standardized operation process for long-distance storage and transportation:Precooling is the beginning of the cold chain of farm products. Indian jujube's production period is from January to March, and the environmental temperature during the harvest period is low, so the pre-cooling of the fruit after harvest is often ignored. According to the results of last year's research, room cooling or forced air cooling immediately after harvest of Indian jujube can effectively delay the increase in the decay rate of fruit during the later storage period. For this reason, this year’s research plan intends to establish the basic data of forced air cooling of Indian jujube, and the evaluation of the influence of temperature management after fruit harvest on fruit storage. And established the post-harvest processing operation process for the long-distance storage and transportation of JinTao and Kaohsiung No.11 Indian jujube fruits. Improve the operating gap of the packaging house, and further improve the quality of fruit delivered to the export market.(4)Establishing Optimum Business Operation Model of Marin Transportation and Mixed Loading in Grape Tomatoes:Taiwan-grown grape tomatoes are famous for the strong sweet taste and, therefore, are considered having competitiveness in international markets. However, the postharvest condition and technology for the commodity have not been systemically established. The purposes of this research proposal are planning to investigate optimum gas compositions and modified atmosphere packaging of grape tomato for export market. In addition, computational fluid mechanics software is to be applied to design the retail container, corrugated carton box, and the precooling equipment attached on the pallet. Then to strength preservation as well as extend product longevity via enhancing precooling efficiency, using modified atmosphere packaging, applying controlled atmosphere container, selecting suitable mix-load produce. The results of this project will be beneficial for exploring international markets, such as South-East Asia, Middle East, and Canada. In addition, the benefit about application of the technology will be evaluated by cold room storage trials and scale up experiment of marine transportation before transferring to industry utility.(5)Improvement and establish on cold chain technology for the fruits collecting, sorting and packaging house of pineapple industry:In order to evaluate the effect of cold chain construction on fruit quality, storage, and the ability of reducing fruit loss and slowing down fruit deterioration rate during collection to consumption end in post harvest process, we are going to simulate transportation experiment to explore the urgent need of cold chain. We aim to avoid fruit loss by simple methods and technique to cool down fruit temperatures to room temperature during collection, selection, grading as to shipping process, and also reduce peduncle wound pollution and corrosion. Through understanding of the necessity and applying cold chain in the whole post harvest process, the improvement and maintenance of fruit quality could stabilize the pineapple industry in Taiwan and enhance its global competitiveness.(6)Establishment on the export technology by cool chains system of wax-apple (cv. Sugar Barbie):In order to establish year-round supply model of wax apple Tainung No. 3 (Sugar Barbie), we build the supply specifications and supply chain; therefore, we investigate the export market demand specifications by small-sample air transport mode, and corporate with exporters to increase the sales of emerging markets. In addition, to establish the best mode for either sea or air shipping, we try to simulate that sea Cabinet of low-temperature refrigerated by sea shipping, and to discuss the most effective way to extend shelf life. (7)The evaluation of cherry tomato preharvest management for exporation:The project focused on the survey of cherry tomato commercial varieties tolerance of lower temperature, finally we can sellect one variety for export in 2021. We established the preharvesting managemen ,including the greenhouse shade net and irrigation technologies. They will  decrease the rate of disforder fruits. We also proceed the trial for preserver to extend tomatoes shelf life.
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