外銷標竿品項開發新市場關鍵技術延伸

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計畫名稱: 外銷標竿品項開發新市場關鍵技術延伸
計畫主持人: 官青杉
共同計畫主持人: 吳俊達;林慧玲;梁佑慎;劉依昌;黃基倬;唐佳惠;杜元凱;苗志銘
計畫編號: 109農科-23.1.3-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所嘉義農業試驗分所園藝系
全程計畫年: 2020
關鍵字: 小果番茄;櫥架壽命;巴斯德效應;百香果;貯運性;楊桃;壓差預冷;番石榴;印度棗;氣變包裝;鳳梨;冷鏈;長程外銷保鮮技術;釋迦;採收成熟度;貯運性;寒害;氣調貯藏;壓差預冷;採收時間;Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme;Shelf life;Pasteur effect;passion fruit;post-shipping performance;star fruit;Forced air cooling;guava;jujube;Modified Atmosphere Packaging;pineapple;cold chain;long-distance export technology;sugar apple;Harvest Matur
摘要: (1)重要外銷果品氣調及氣變保鮮貯運條件之建立:台灣外銷水果多以熱帶水果為主,但熱帶水果常不耐低溫貯藏,易發生寒害而降低貯運壽命,同時果實在採收後仍具有生命,持續新陳代謝活動,如呼吸作用和後熟作用,直至老化和死亡,而生理劣變導致採收後果實品質劣化,如外觀褐化、果肉軟化、風味改變及營養價值的下降。運用改變貯藏水果環境之大氣組成,使產品貯藏於高CO<SUB>2</SUB>及低O<SUB>2</SUB>環境下,可減緩代謝及果品後熟老化,進而達到保鮮之效果。然而,各項果品利用氣變包裝時常因發生無氧呼吸而造成酒精或乙醛之累積而影響果實風味,造成果品劣變。 因此本計畫之目的為尋找目前台灣5樣重要外銷水果—番石榴、楊桃、釋迦、百香果、印度棗之最低可耐氧氣濃度和最高可耐二氧化碳濃度,可提供氣調貯藏或氣變包裝精準調控之參考,進而設計氣調貯藏及氣變包裝之條件,並進行模擬外銷試驗,建立重要外銷果品高CO<SUB>2</SUB>低O<SUB>2</SUB>氣調貯藏臨界值及相關生理反應之資料庫,可提供氣調貯藏或氣變包裝精準調控之參考,是為台灣水果外銷長期貯運保鮮之關鍵技術。(2)建立番石榴長程運輸預冷技術與產銷貯運保鮮冷鏈標準化:番石榴具週年生產的特性,目前外銷量逐年增加,每月均有出口,為提升外銷競爭力,穩定供貨品質及供貨量是必要條件,主要外銷國家為加拿大、中國等地,歐盟等國外市場則尚待開發。台灣外銷番石榴,常因夏季氮肥施用過多,高溫多濕,果實生長快速,造成果實品質不佳,而使外銷果品到貨品質因果皮褐化、果心軟化等劣變造成高腐損率。造成主要損耗之關鍵因素為果實田間熱未快速進行去除,因而影響長程運輸之到貨品質。為快速去除田間熱可從幾個方面下手,其一影響因子為採收時間,不同採收時間可影響果實田間熱的累積量,如清晨採收,則田間熱累積量較低。另外可以利用預冷技術(如室冷、水冷、壓差預冷、冰冷等),將果實的田間熱快速去除,但因番石榴果實果皮結構脆弱,不當的處理方式極為容易造成表皮受傷,進而使果實腐爛,因此擇一最佳預冷方式尤其重要。本計畫擬針對田間採收時間、採收至集貨場運輸時程、預冷技術、包裝方式及規劃溫度管理,進行從田間到消費端冷鏈外銷流程標準化,期能提升夏季番石榴長程外銷貯運品質及其產值,並開發新興外銷市場,提升帶動整個番石榴產業的價值。本年度(108年)美國開放台灣番石榴准入,其低溫檢疫條件重新訂定為果心溫度1℃17天,因此船運期間貯運之溫度管理需重新試驗檢測,期能符合低溫檢疫之需求,且到貨果品仍可維持優質狀態,以訂定台灣番石榴果實輸美標準作業流程。(3)印度棗外銷品質損耗原因探討與預冷技術應用:台灣栽培之印度棗品質優良,受到許多海外市場喜好。唯台灣印度棗缺乏以外銷為導向的供貨結構,外銷果品品質與供貨不穩定。目前國內所設置集貨場多以內銷為主,其面積小、設施簡陋,難以符合外銷產品採後處理需求。集貨場與貿易業者對印度棗採後處理必要措施認知不足,缺乏採後整體處理流程觀念,進而影響印度棗到貨品質以及提高損耗率。為此,如何克服台灣印度棗果實的外銷貯運困境並積極開發印度棗外銷品質穩定貯運技術有其必要性,以做為開發新外銷市場的基礎。本計畫目的為盤點印度棗採後處理流程缺口,評估印度棗外銷集貨流程的缺失改進方案,比較預冷處理對印度棗貯運特性影響並模擬輸韓檢疫處理對印度棗品質影響。(4)建置小果番茄外銷最佳海運及併櫃商業運轉模式:國產小果番茄糖度高風味佳,具有競爭力,但採後處理條件尚未系統性建置。本計劃目的在探討外銷小果番茄最適採收成熟度、貯運溫度、大氣組成,建立小果番茄最佳貯運條件。再藉由壓差預冷提升預冷效率、氣變包裝技術、氣調櫃運銷、篩選併櫃園產品,強化保鮮效果,延長產品壽命,期能拓展東南亞、中東、加拿大國際市場。並藉由冷藏庫貯藏與裝櫃海運外銷目標市場先導型試驗,驗證計劃成果,以利技轉運用於小果番茄外銷產業採後處理流程,紓緩國內盛產價跌壓力。(5)鳳梨採收集運與全程貯運冷鏈技術之建立:為評估冷鏈之建置對鳳梨採收後果實品質及貯藏性、對減少果實自集貨至消費端損耗之影響及對減緩果實品質劣變速率等採後處理相關問題之影響,本計畫擬進行模擬運輸試驗,探討冷鏈之需求急迫性,改善集運過程果實處於高溫狀態,並於選別至分級流程以簡易措施快速降溫至低於包裝場室溫,並研發降低鳳梨果梗創口污染及腐損比率之技術,期能了解採收後全程冷鏈對提升鳳梨果實品質之必要性,維持果品品質以穩定臺灣鳳梨產業,提升國際競爭力。(6)蓮霧黑糖芭比外銷冷鏈技術建立:探討新品種黑糖芭比貯運最佳貯放條件,進行本品種與外銷品種(蜜風鈴),貯藏(放)效益比較,進行海運模擬試驗。調查本品種各地供貨時間,以做為日後訂單之貨源參考,分析各產地果實品質及穩定度,建立本品種品質規格標準化,以做為果實分級標準參考。蒐集與分析貯放後果實損耗問題 , 提出有效因應方法。(7)小果番茄採前管理技術對低溫儲運之影響評估:本計畫調查臺灣小果番茄8個商業品種及不同採收模式,期能選拔出1或多個優良品種適合外銷使用;建立設施小果番茄採前管理技術,生產優質小果番茄,提高果實低溫忍受力,降低番茄異常果實(臍腐果、不正常轉色、不正常後熟)發生率;並在不影響果實外型、品質情況下,提高果實著果率,期能生產優質果品,穩定供應外銷市場,進而提高外銷農民收益5%。109年度將進行小果番茄品種、採收模式調查工作,以瞭解現有小果番茄生產狀況。(1)Control Atmosphere Storage and Modified atmosphere package Technology for Important Export Fruits. Most of Taiwan's exported fruits are mainly tropical fruits, but tropical fruits are often not resistant to low temperature storage, which is prone to cold damage and reduce storage and transportation life. At the same time, the fruit still has life after harvesting, and continues metabolic activities such as respiration and ripening until aging and death. The physiological deterioration leads to deterioration of fruit quality after harvesting, such as browning of the appearance, softening of the flesh, change of flavor and decline of nutritional value. By changing the atmospheric composition of the storage environment such as high CO<SUB>2</SUB> and low O<SUB>2</SUB> may slow down the metabolism and ripening of the fruit to achieve the goal of preservation. However, when fruits are subjected to modified atmosphere packaging, the accumulation of alcohol or acetaldehyde is often caused by the anaerobic respiration of the product, which affects the flavor of the fruit. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the minimum oxygen concentration and the highest carbon dioxide concentration  for controlled atmosphere storage or modified atmosphere package of five important export fruits in Taiwan, such as guava, carambola, sugar apple, passion fruit, and Indian jujube. It may provide reference for the precise regulation of controlled atmosphere storage or modified atmosphere packaging, and then determin the conditions for controlled atmosphere storage and modified atmosphere packaging to be used in the exporting  simulation the test. It may be help to  establish a database of threshold values of  high CO<SUB>2</SUB> and low O<SUB>2 </SUB>concentration for controlled atmosphere storage and related physiological responses, which may then provide reference conditions for the precise regulation of controlled atmosphere storage or modified atmosphere packaging, and develop into an indispensable key technology for Taiwan fruit export.(2)Precooling Methods and Innovation Postharvest Handing and Cold Chain of Guava long-distance transportation. Guava has the characteristics of annual production, and the export quantity is increasing year by year, with monthly export . In order to enhance the competitiveness of export , stable  quality and supply of product are necessary conditions. The main export countries of guava are Canada, China , and the EU and other foreign markets have  yet to be developed. Due to excess nitrogen fertilizer, high temperature and humidity, and rapid fruit growth in summer, poor fruit quality often encountered. Export fruit has high corrosion rate related to inferior changes such as skin browning and pulp softening. The key factor causing the main loss is the failure to remove the field heat quickly, thus affecting the guava fruit quality in long distance export. In order to quickly remove the field heat, several aspects may be considered. One of the influencing factors is the harvesting time. Different harvesting time can affect the accumulation of field heat , for example, the field heat accumulation is lower when harvested in early morning. In addition, pre-cooling technology (such as room cooling, water cooling, differential pressure pre-cooling, ice cooling, etc.) can be used to quickly remove the field heat of the fruit. However, due to the fragile structure of the guava fruit peel, improper treatment is extremely easy to damage the skin, which in turn causes the rotten fruit . Therefore, it is especially important to choose the best pre-cooling method.        This study targets at the field harvest time, the transport time from harvest to the collection yard, the pre-cooling technology, the packaging method and the temperature management to standardize the cold chain export process from the field to the consumer side. It is expected to improve the fruit quality and value of summer guava for long distance export, to develop the emerging export market, and to enhance the value of the guava industry. This year the United States approves important of Taiwan guavaa. The low temperature quarantine conditions are reset as 1 ℃ fruit core temperature for  17 days. The temperature management during storage and transportation needs to be re-tested with hope to meet the requirements of low temperature quarantine, to maintain high fruit quality after transporation, and to set up the standard operating procedures for guava exported to the United States. (3)Discussion on Reasons for Quality Loss of Indian Jujube(<em>Ziziphus mauritiana</em> Lam.) for Export and Application of Pre-cooling Technology. The Indian jujube produced in Taiwan is of good quality and is favored by many overseas markets. Indian jujube in Taiwan lacks a supply structure for the purpose of export, resulting in unstable fruit quality and supply. At present, the packing house is mainly for domestic sale. The packing house has a small area and simple facilities, which is difficult to meet the post-harvest processing requirements of exported products. Traders have insufficient ideas about the post-harvest processing of Indian jujube, and lack the concept of the overall post-harvest processing process, which leads to the poor quality and high loss rate of Indian jujube. For this reason, how to overcome the problem of storage and transportation of Indian jujube and establish the export and storage technology of Indian jujube has its necessity as the basis for developing the export market. The purpose of this project is to investigate the post-harvest processing process of Indian jujube and evaluate the improvement plan of Indian jujube's export process. The purpose of this plan is to investigate the post-harvest processing process of Indian jujube, evaluate the improvement scheme of Indian jujube's export process, further compare the impact of pre-cooling treatment on the storability of Indian jujube, and simulate the impact of quarantine treatment to South Korea on the quality of Indian jujube.(4)Establishing Optimum Business Operation Model of Marin Transportation and Mixed Loading in Grape Tomatoes. Taiwan-grown grape tomatoes are famous for the strong sweet taste and, therefore, are considered having competitiveness in international markets.  However, the postharvest condition and technology for the commodity have not been systemically established.  The purposes of this research proposal are planning to investigate optimum harvesting maturity, storage temperature, and gas compositions of grape tomato for export market.  Then to strength preservation as well as extend product longevity via enhancing precooling efficiency, using modified atmosphere packaging, applying controlled atmosphere container, selecting suitable mix-load produce.  The results of this project will be beneficial for exploring international markets, such as South-East Asia, Middle East, and Canada.  In addition, the benefit about application of the technology will be evaluated by cold room storage trials and scale up experiment of marine transportation before transferring to industry utility.(5)Improvement and establish on cold chain technology for the fruits collecting, sorting and packaging house of pineapple industry. In order to evaluate the effect of cold chain construction on fruit quality, storage, and the ability of reducing fruit loss and slowing down fruit deterioration rate during collection to consumption end in post harvest process, we are going to simulate transportation experiment to explore the urgent need of cold chain.  We aim to avoid fruit loss by simple methods and technique to cool down fruit temperatures to room temperature during collection, selection, grading as to shipping process, and also reduce peduncle wound pollution and corrosion. Through understanding of the necessity and applying cold chain in the whole post harvest process, the improvement and maintenance of fruit quality could stabilize the pineapple industry in Taiwan and enhance its global competitiveness.(6)Establishment on the export technology by cool chains system of wax-apple (cv. Sugar Barbie). Study on the optimal storage conditions of the new variety- Sugar Barbie, and proceeding benefit effect of storage and transportation which comparing with the major exported variety –Ruby. Therefore, taking Sugar Barbie and Ruby for materials to proceed seaborne simulation test. Investigated the support period of Sugar Barbie as a reference of future orders, and then to analyze the fruit quality and stability of each production area to establish the standardization of quality specifications for the reference of fruit grading.As a reference for fruit grading standards. Collected and analyzed the fruit loss problem after storage and provide an effective response method.(7)The evaluation of cherry tomato pre-harvest management for expiration. The project focused on the survey of cherry tomato commercial varieties tolerance of lower temperature and 2 different harvesting model that fruit with sepal or not. We wish to find one or more cherry tomato varieties were suitable for export, although established the pre-harvesting management to increase the capacity of lower temperature and reduce the rate of disorder fruits. In 2020, we started the project by inventorying the cherry tomato varieties and harvest methods.
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