外銷主力作物領航產業技術研發與應用

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計畫名稱: 外銷主力作物領航產業技術研發與應用
計畫主持人: 吳玉婷
共同計畫主持人: 謝明憲;胡智益;徐敏記;江明耀;官青杉;劉天麟;周國隆;唐佳惠;黃維廷;蔡憲宗;陳琦玲;陳涵葳;黃惟揚;陳柱中;寧方俞;陳俊仁;林儒宏;劉千如;劉滄棽;羅士凱;蕭孟衿;林秀橤;黃玉如;林祐瑩;楊小瑩;戴佳如;蘇彥碩;劉秋芳;邱明賜
計畫編號: 108農科-13.2.6-子-Z1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農糧署
全程計畫年: 2019
關鍵字: 智慧農業;貯藏;智慧農業;溯源茶產業;機械;外銷主力產業;智能化管理;生產履歷;作物生長模式;茶園缺工;茶園建置與規範;省工;乘坐式採茶機;萵苣;溯源農產品;影像識別;冷鏈;結球萵苣;果實品質;鳳梨;外銷;毛豆;農業加值;smart agriculture;storage;Smart agriculture;traceable tea industry;Machinery;Export main industry;intelligent management;Production history;Crop model;Labor Shortage of Tea;Tea Garden builded and Law;Labor-saving;Riding Tea-Plucking Machine;Lettuce;tracea
摘要: 結球萵苣溯源生產智能管理之研發 臺灣自2002年開始形成外銷萵苣產業,歷經十餘年發展,目前農企業遭遇契作田管理不易、環境資訊無法掌握、外銷稽核作業耗費大量人力、外銷市場侷限及生產管理技術未能現代化的困境。隨著農業資通訊技術發展,新興技術的導入可望協助產業升級,提升產值及競爭力,本計畫擬以4年為期,建構以作物模型的預報方法的萵苣智慧化生產架構,並發展自動化害蟲監測技術與圖像化萵苣病蟲害識別與管理服務系統,從生產面建立智慧化栽培模式。同時建立結球萵苣智慧冷鏈貯運管理模組,開發智能化長程冷鏈保鮮技術,協助拓展外銷市場。  鳳梨智能生產及採後處理技術改進 為提升鳳梨產業升級,減輕農村勞力缺乏、解決果實品質差異化,並推動產業溯源資料建立,本計畫擬改善果園作業機械化、栽培管理及採收後處理等智能化,包括開發輕量化盛裝容器包括建立各 項生理指標速測法,強化產地溯源資訊,完成產地氣候、栽培管理與果肉色澤劣變等關係之研究,並開發果實清潔系統,提升果品品質,與建置果園生產回饋系統,瞭解運輸末端之環境變化,促進臺灣鳳梨產業升級,提升國際競爭力。 外銷結球萵苣生產管理及省工作業輔具導入 結球萵苣為台灣第二大之外銷蔬菜,年外銷量超過1萬2千公噸。外銷產業雖歷經 15年發展,但生產從種植至採收作業仍仰賴人力作業為主,面對產區人力老化及缺 乏有經驗人力支持,已危及產業永續發展。因此導入生產管理及省工作業輔具導入 為本計畫目的。2019年計畫主要工作項目為延伸106-107年度所建立之作畦施肥同步 作業及應用二行式移植機之整合應用。增加導入採收機應用,建立最適行進動線、 人員配置及最低損耗作業模式,另導入四行式移植機種,並建立合理栽植模式。最後依據氣象及土壤肥力資料建立產期預測及用肥預估之估算公式雛形。預期2019年底前建立從作畦施肥同步、機械定植及採收之整套省工生產作業模式,增加農場人力周年運用率。 毛豆產業智慧科技研發與應用 本計畫目標為建立毛豆外銷專區智慧型農業作業體系,解決農業勞動力短缺問題 ,提升專區的科學化管理及經營效率,提升我國毛豆產品在國際市場的競爭力。其重要工作項目包含(1) 建立智慧型GPS曳引機及多功能管理機田間生產技術。 (2) 建立毛豆採收機GPS車載式及病蟲害影像監測系統。 (3) 將以上智慧型技術結合在 毛豆外銷專區旗山示範場域進行生產測試優化,並配合雲端農業APP系統進行數據分 析及智慧生產管理,以提升毛豆大農場智慧化生產管理。其預期效益包含(1) 建立智慧型GPS曳引機 及多功能管理機田間測試 及優化1-2項,達成毛豆外銷專區精準耕作,可大幅節省人力30%,降低生產成本達 30%,提升作業效率,並節省用水、肥料及農藥等成本。 (2) 建立毛豆採收機 GPS車載及病蟲害蟲影像監測系統計2項,提升毛豆產品外銷品質。(3) 建置毛豆智 慧型生產示範場域1項,生產安全優質的毛豆原料,提升產品價值,預計每年可創造 台灣毛豆產品外銷產值達25億元以上,維持銷日冠軍的佳績。 溯源茶產業與智能化管理發展計畫 本研究發展智慧管理工具及溯源系統協助田間生產與商品溯源。今年度初步建立茶園自動滴灌系統、農用噴藥無人機、UAV 搭載多光譜NDVI及高畫素相機等自動化工具之使用,並持續藉由自動感測裝置及物聯網(IOT)模組於各生產資訊點收集茶園露天環境參數。為建立專家決策系統,持續累積茶園土壤檢測、病蟲害監測及農藥殘留檢測資料,並持續修正青心烏龍及臺茶12號預測模式,於作物優質生產整合資訊平台後臺預設低海拔青心烏龍及臺茶12號生產管理參數,以利適時提供建議讓茶農在田間管理上更加準確與有效。 乘坐式採茶機械適地化栽植技術之研究     20 多年前臺灣農業人口為 101 萬人,但社會變遷與工商發展,到現在 (2016年) 農業就業人口將降為 56 萬人。臺灣農業人口逐年減少與老化,缺工問題逐年嚴重。為解決缺工問題,近年茶業改良場積極推動茶園機械化,以乘坐式採茶機械做施肥、修邊、淺 (中) 剪與採茶,大幅提升茶園管理效率。    日本為達到最大商業利潤,茶農利用乘坐式機械採收管理來降低人力成本,提高作業效率與產量。目前臺灣茶產業逐漸往商業模式運作,但苦於人力老化與工資提高,臺灣自產的商業茶成本無法降低,也無法自產足夠的量供給國內飲料市場,造成進口茶的量逐年增加。    但臺灣乘坐式機械的操作模式與機械化茶園建置方式還不夠成熟,需建立可乘坐式機械化之示範茶園,預計建置2公頃,開發適合臺灣茶園的田間管理附掛機械,並將此技術輔導茶農建立代耕模式,逐步將平地茶園乘坐式機械化,解決缺工問題,同時降低茶葉成本並提高產量,減少臺灣對進口茶的需求量。Study on intelligent management for traceable lettuce production system Since 2002, Taiwan has formed a export lettuce industry. After more than ten years of development, the industry has gradually grown strong. However, it is difficult for a agricultural enterprises to manage their fields, environmental information can not be grasped, export audit work is labor-intensive, export market is limited and production management technology isn’t modernization. With the development of agricultural information technology, the introduction of emerging technologies is expected to help industrial upgrading, enhance the production value and competitiveness. This project plan to improve the problem by 4-years period, using construction of crop model forecasting method of lettuce intelligent production structure, and the lettuce pest automatic monitoring trap; identification and management services system, from the production side to establish the wisdom of cultivation mode. At the same time the establishment the lettuce cold chain storage management technique to help expand the export market. Intelligent production and optimized postharvest handling technology of pineapple The smart agricultural practice of pineapple industry aim at reducing the labor requirement, unifying the fruit quality, and enhancing the tractability of field practice. To achieve this goal, the improvement  of the agricultural mechanics, cultivation management and post-harvest treatment will be enhanced in to the pineapple industry in this project. The studies in this project are to establish the quick measurement of physiological indexes, to introduce smart items on tracing system of local product, to investigate the interactions among local weather, cultivation management and fruit quality .Also, the development of fruit cleaning system and orchard production feedback system to monitor the environmental change are included. Through upgrade the pineapple industry by smart agricultural techniques, the promotion of the global competitiveness of pineapple business of Taiwan is expected.   Introduction of auxiliary machinery to reduce labor costs for exported iceberg lettuce production ceberg lettuce is the second largest vegetable for export, with an average exceeding 12,000 tons per year in Taiwan. Although this export industry has undergone rapid growth over the last 15 years, the production operations from transplant to harvest still mainly relies on labor. In the recent decade, an aging workforce and lack of experienced labor has endangered the sustainable development of the industry. In order to introduce auxiliary machinery to reduce labor costs, this year's project will focus on continuing the use of two-row semiautomatic transplant machines and fertilizer application in ridges by using a fertilizing and furrowing machine, which was established in 2017-2018. In addition, a harvesting machine will be introduced, and then its pathway through the field, role of laborers, and its damaging effect on crops will be evaluated in terms of minimizing cost, time, labor, and damage. We plan introduce four-row transplant machines for mini lettuce cultivation in spring-summer, and evaluate a suitable number of plants per row and distant between rows. Finally, the harvesting date prediction based on weather forecasts and fertilization recommendation depending on soil test data will be derived from a mathematic formula in an early stage of development. By the end of 2019, we expect to establish a set of labor- saving operations for iceberg lettuce production from furrowing to harvesting and stabilize labor year-round. Smart Technology Development and Application on Vegetable Soybean Industry The project objectives for vegetable soybean are to establish smart agricultural operation system on the export professional fields to address the agricultural labor shortages, improve our products in the international market competitiveness. The experimental procedures contains are 1) to establish smart GPS tractor and multi-function machine to product technology on large farms; 2) to establish GPS and video monitoring system on vegetable soybean harvester and a growth and disease- pest monitoring system of field; 3) to combine the above smart technologies in the Qishan Demonstration Site to optimize production testing, and cooperate with the cloud-side agricultural APP system to enhance the smart production management on large farms. The experimental expectant benefits are 1) to establish the smart tractor GPS system to product technology on large farms to reach precision farming. It can save 30% of manpower, reduce production costs by 30%, improve operational efficiency, and save water, fertilizer and pesticides and other costs, 2) to establish a soybean harvester GPS and video monitoring system, to enhance the quality of vegetable soybean product, 3) to build a smart management system on large farms for production safe and high quality of vegetable soybean, will reach more than 2.5 billion dollars a year, to enhance Taiwanese competitiveness in the international market. The Development Plan of Traceable Tea Industry and Intelligence Management In this study, we develop the intelligent management tools and traceable system to assist field production and traceable requirements management. This year, the tea plantation automatic drip irrigation system, agricultural spray drone, UAV equipped with multi-spectral NDVI and high-pixel camera and other automated tools were used. And the automatic sensing device and Internet of Things (IOT) module were used for informatizing the production records in the main tea plantations in Taiwan. In order to establish an expert decision-making system, we will continue to accumulate soil analysis, pest monitoring and pesticide residues in tea. In addition, we continue to correct the prediction model of Qingxin Oolong and TTES No.12, and preset low-altitude Qingxin Oolong in the background of crop production management information system. The recommendations will help to build a more accuracy and effective field management. The Optimization of the Tea Management of Pruning Machine     Twenty  years ago, there were about 1.01 million people working for agriculture. Nowadays, by the social change and the business development, there are 560 thousand people working for agriculture now. The agricultural worker decrease and getting older year by year, so it is a big problem on labor demand. To solve the situation, we encourage the farmer to work by the machine in fertilization, cutting ,and harvest, dramatically improve the efficiency of man power.    In Japan, the farmer use the riding machine to cost down the business payment and improve the efficiency. Now, Taiwan Tea industry is suffering from the labor getting older, and the payment still higher. Taiwan Tea cost is also high, so we can’t provide enough tea for domestic demand. Cause the import tea more and more.    The objective of this study is to build a two-hectare tea garden for demonstration which was managing by the riding machine, and to develop attached-fertilizing machine improving the efficiency of labor .By this way, the mechanized tea garden management could be more popular in Taiwan.
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