‘台農11號’、‘台農17號’及‘台農18號’鳳梨果實採收後生理及處理技術

字體大小:A- A A+

單位商業會員附件下載:
論文名稱: ‘台農11號’、‘台農17號’及‘台農18號’鳳梨果實採收後生理及處理技術
研究生姓名: 林天順
指導教授姓名: 柯立祥
出版年: 2008
學校名稱: 國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱: 農園生產系所
關鍵字: 鳳梨;包裝處理;藥劑處理;成熟度;貯藏壽命;果心褐化;pineapple;package treatment;chemical treatment;maturity;storage life;blackheart
摘要: 本研究係針對屏東縣瑪家鄉吳姓農民所栽種之鳳梨(Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.),包括台農11號(香水鳳梨)、台農17號(金鑽鳳梨)及台農18號(金桂花鳳梨)鳳梨果實,探討鳳梨果實採後生理、包裝(裸果裝箱、PE袋旋口、PE袋密封及乙烯吸收劑配合PE袋密封)、藥劑處理(甲殼素、ClO2及益可(Ecolife))與不同成熟度(1/4轉黃、1/2轉黃及3/4轉黃)及貯藏溫度(5、10、15、20及25℃)對果實貯藏壽命、果實品質及寒害之影響,以及果實醣類組成份等進行一系列探討。 結果顯示,三品種鳳梨果實在貯藏期間,呼吸率及乙烯產生率均隨著貯藏溫度提高而逐漸升高,但在整個貯藏期間,並無明顯之呼吸及乙烯更年上升及更年峰出現,其呼吸型態均屬非更年性果實之特性。 在15℃貯藏之台農18號鳳梨果實,利用乙烯吸收劑配合PE袋密封,能有效延長果實貯藏壽命(31.7天)。另兩品種鳳梨果實利用氣變包裝和裸果之貯藏壽命均無顯著差異。台農17號及18號鳳梨利用25%ClO2藥劑浸泡1分鐘和未處理鳳梨之貯藏壽命,前者之貯藏壽命分別為36.0天及33.7天,後者分別為33.0天及28.0天,均達顯著差異,但台農11號鳳梨經ClO2處理對貯藏壽命之影響不顯著。在貯藏期間之鳳梨果實,其可溶性固形物(TSS)、可滴定酸(TA)、糖/酸比及果皮色相角度均隨著貯藏時間增加而呈下降趨勢。維他命C含量,在採收時及貯藏期間,均以台農18號品種顯著高於其他兩品種。另外在pH值、果肉含水率、果皮亮度及色彩濃度方面,均隨著貯藏時間增加而呈上升趨勢。三品種鳳梨果實,包括台農11號、17號及18號等不同成熟度果實,以15℃貯藏之微黃果之貯藏壽命最長,分別為36.7、34.0及29.0天,且在貯藏期間之品質與半黃果實及全黃果實均無顯著差異,建議在鳳梨果實貯運上選用微黃果實並且貯藏溫度為15℃,對延長貯藏壽命及保鮮之效果較佳。 三供試鳳梨品種中,以台農17號鳳梨對低溫寒害(果心褐化)最敏感,其次為台農18號鳳梨,此兩品種貯藏在15℃經9天,回溫(25℃)均可能出現果心褐化之症狀。而以台農11號鳳梨對低溫較不敏感。不同成熟度之鳳梨果實,三品種均隨著成熟度提高而對低溫愈敏感,寒害症狀愈嚴重。 三品種鳳梨果實不同部位之風味差異甚大,可溶性固形物、糖/酸比及pH值含量均由果頂端往果柄端呈上升趨勢,而可滴定酸則呈相反趨勢。鳳梨果實之醣類含量,採收後以蔗糖含量最高(9.104 g/100g),其次為果糖(3.480 g/100g),葡萄糖含量最低(2.634 g/100g),均未檢測出麥芽糖存在。Postharvest physiology of ‘TN11’、‘TN17’ and ‘TN18’ pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) fruit collected from Wu’s orchard, Ma-Chia, Pingtung county, were studied. A series of studies including postharvest physiology, packaging with polyenhtlene (PE) bag, chemical treatments, various maturity, temperature and fruit components were conducted. The result showed that respiration and ethylene of three pineapple cultivar increased with storage temperature. The pineapple fruit exhibited typical non-climacteric fruit identified by no climacteric respiratory and ethylene peak. The ‘TN18’ fruit packaged with sealed PE bag containing ethylene absorbents at 15℃, extended storage life (about 31.7 days) significantly. No significant difference on storage life of packaged and unpackaged ‘TN11’ and ‘TN17’ fruit. The storage life of ‘TN17’ and ‘TN18’ fruit soaked with 25% ClO2 for 1 minute were 36.0 and 33.7 days and significantly different from control. However, there is no significant effect on storage life of ‘TN11’ fruit soaked with ClO2. Total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), sugar/acid ratio and peel hue angle (θ) of pineapple fruits were decreased with storage. Vitamin C levels at harvest and storeage of ‘TN18’ were significantly higher than the other two pineapple cultivar. Besides, pH value, moisture content of pulp, lightness and chroma of peel were increased with storage time. All cultivar tested showed fruit harvested at 1/4-yellow shell color stage had best storage life at 15℃(about 36.7, 34.0 and 29.0 days, respectively for ‘TN11’, ‘TN17’ and ‘TN18’). No significant difference on quality in storage between fruit harvested at half-yellow and 3/4-yellow shell color stage. Maturity at 1/4-yellow shell color stage and 15℃ in storage were suggested to extend storage life and quality in transportation of pineapple fruits. Among the three pineapple cultivar studied, ‘TN17’ was most susceptible to chilling injury (blackheart) and followed by ‘TN18’ and ‘TN11’. Both ‘TN17’ and ‘TN18’ cultivar expressed blackheart symptoms at 25℃ when stored beyond 9 days at 15℃. The susceptibility of pineapple fruit to chilling injury increased with maturity. There was variation of flavor among pineapple fruit parts. The TSS, sugar/acid ratio and pH value increased from crown end to basal tissue and TA levels showed inverse trend. After harvest, the sucrose content was the highest (9.104 g/100g) and flowed by fructose (3.480 g/100g) and glucose (2.634 g/100g). Maltose was not detected.
資源連結: 前往查看