‘台農二號’與‘津香’番木瓜植株性狀及果實品質比較

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論文名稱: ‘台農二號’與‘津香’番木瓜植株性狀及果實品質比較
研究生姓名: 蘇靖
指導教授姓名: 謝慶昌
出版年: 2019
學校名稱: 國立中興大學
系所名稱: 園藝學系所
關鍵字: 番木瓜;‘台農二號’;‘津香’;果實品質;Carica papaya;Fruit quality
摘要: 番木瓜(Carica papaya L.)是世界上重要的熱帶經濟果樹,根據世界農糧組織(FAO)統計,至2014年全球番木瓜產值已經超過4000百萬美元,顯示出番木瓜在世界的重要性以及其經濟價值。本試驗試以新品種‘津香’番木瓜及台灣常見栽培種‘台農二號’番木瓜進行營養比較,希望能藉由此次試驗成果來評估‘津香’番木瓜是否有成為栽培種之潛力,以及調查‘津香’番木瓜之品種性狀,以利品種資料之建立。本試驗結果顯示,兩品種番木瓜之糖度無顯著差異性。完熟‘津香’番木瓜果肉中的抗壞血酸約有59.46mg/100g含量,顯著高於‘台農二號’番木瓜果肉中的含量34.68mg/100g。果皮色彩,在綠熟果實階段L*、a*、b*、C*、H*皆有顯著差異,但在完熟階段只有L*值有顯著差異性。兩品種番木瓜果實呼吸率曲線呈現相似的趨勢,而乙烯釋放含量,‘津香’番木瓜相較於‘台農二號’番木瓜較為穩定。醣類比例,‘津香’番木瓜果肉中,擁有較高比例的葡萄糖含量,‘台農二號’番木瓜則是有較高比例的果糖含量。揮發性物質,‘津香’番木瓜果肉中擁有大量的芳樟醇類物質,相較於‘台農二號’番木瓜果肉高出約2~3倍的總體含量。醣類比例及揮發性物質之間的不同,可能影響消費者食用的感受。礦物元素含量結果顯示,葉片中的含量在兩品種間並無顯著差異,‘津香’番木瓜果肉中Mg低於‘台農二號’,而Cu、Zn則高於‘台農二號’。本試驗最終進行兩品種間的官能品評,分為放置5天、7天、12天、14天後,給不同食用者進行盲測,結果顯示,‘津香’番木瓜需要較久的時間才有較佳的風味呈現,而‘台農二號’番木瓜則是相反的情形,需要盡早食用,放置天數過多果實可能已經呈現軟爛的口感,而造成品評感受不佳。結合上述特性‘津香’番木瓜具有成為台灣新的栽培種之潛力。Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is an important economic tropical fruit in the world. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the global papaya production value has exceeded US$4000 million in 2014 that indicates the world importance of papaya and its economic value. The objects of this experiment is to compare the nutrition value between the new variety '' Chin Hsiang '' papaya and Taiwan''s common cultivar ''Tai Nong no.2'' papaya and use these results to evaluate whether '' Chin Hsiang '' papaya has the potential to become a commercial cultivar in Taiwan, and to establish varietal characteristics for '' Chin Hsiang '' papaya fruit. Our results showed that there is no significant difference in the total soluble sugar between these two varieties of papaya. The ascorbic acid content in the ripe '' Chin Hsiang '' papaya pulp was 59.46mg/100g, which is significantly higher than that of the ''Tai Nong no.2'' papaya pulp with a value of 34.68mg/100g. The color indexes of the peel in the green ripe fruit stage including L*, a*, b *, C*, H* were significant different between these two cultivars, however, only L* values was significantly different at the ripening stage. The respiration rate curves showed a similar trend in these two cultivars, and the ethylene production rate in ''Chin Hsiang'' papaya was more stable than ''Tai Nong no.2'' papaya at the ripening stage. The proportion of glucose was higher in ''Chin Hsiang'' papaya pulp and the proportion of fructose was higher in ''Tai Nong no.2'' papaya pulp. The amount of linalool in ''Chin Hsiang'' papaya pulp was double or triple higher than that in ''Tai Nong no.2'' papaya pulp. The difference in the proportion of sugar and volatile substances may affect the consumer''s sensory evaluation. The analysis of mineral element content showed that there is no significant difference in the nutrient content of the leaves between these two varieties. Mg in the pulp of the ''Chin Hsiang'' papaya was lower than that of ''Tai Nong no.2'', while the Cu and Zn were higher than that of the ''Tai Nong no.2''. The food sensory evaluation was conducted in the two varieties at 5 days, 7 days, 12 days, and 14 days after harvest. Blind test was performed among different consumers. Our results showed that ''Chin Hsiang'' papaya need a longer time to develop better flavor, while ''Tai Nong no.2'' papaya is opposite. ''Tai Nong no.2'' papaya needs to be eaten as soon as possible after harvest. The excessive number of days after ''Tai Nong no.2'' was harvested may result in a soft and bad taste, which makes the sensory evaluation poor. Taken together, ''Chin Hsiang'' papaya has the potential to become a new cultivar in Taiwan.
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