台灣番石榴生產之現況與改進

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作者: 張哲嘉(Jer-Chia Chang);林宗賢(Tzong-Shyan Lin)
刊名: 中國園藝
期刊所屬國別:
出版年: 1998
關鍵字: 番石榴;果實;生產;品質;產期;產量;guava;Psidium guajava L. fruit;production;quality;fruit production period;yield
摘要: 臺灣栽培番石榴之歷史悠久,但早年採放任栽培,1950年後經多年的引種、選種、實生變異及芽條變異的選拔,栽培品種由最初的野生種(在來種),歷經白拔、中山月拔、梨仔拔,至果實碩大的泰國拔及世紀拔:在栽培技術方面,由於整枝修剪及套袋技術的進步,已有效矮化樹型及改善果實品質,更利用新梢開花結實之習性,配合強剪及摘心技術,將產期調節並擴大至全年,進而帶動市場消費及栽培規模,近二、三十年來番石榴已成為重要果樹產業。目前該產業遭遇兩難題:一、近年來果實品質未能繼續提升,二、產期及產量之配置仍欠穩定與妥善。由於農民習於調節產期的栽培模式,每棵植株每年可收穫果實多次,雖可增加產量,但果實與新梢及各種生長階段果實間互相競爭養分,影響果實品質與品牌之建立。為因應國內外果品之激烈競爭,未來宜加強有關枝條生育與開花結實習性、果實生育、光合作用、光合產物分配與樹體營養及水分管理之研究,俾改進番石榴果實之生產。Although guava has been introduced into Taiwan for two centuries, it was not commercialized until 1960. The earlier plants were derived from seedlings. Since 1960, the planted area increased dramatically and several commercial varieties were introduced or selected. Cultural techniques such us training and pruning to dwarf the tree, fruit bagging to improve quality, and forcing culture to supply fruits all the year around are popularly utilized in the industry. Forcing culture are fulfilled by pruning and tipping and then the flowers are borne axillarily on the new succulent flushes. In recent yearn, the guava industry is challenged by fruit quality that has not been improved further and the allocation of fruit production period and yield have not been manipulated very well. Although the yield increases substantially by forcing culture, fruits of different growing stages compete not only one another but also with growing flushes for nutrients. In order to improve fruit quality and increase competitiveness, we suggest to strengthen the studies related to the characteristics of vegetative and reproductive growth, photosynthesis, photosynthate allocation, nutrition and water management.
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