印度棗果實生長發育之理化特性與採收後生理之研究

字體大小:A- A A+

單位商業會員附件下載:
論文名稱: 印度棗果實生長發育之理化特性與採收後生理之研究
研究生姓名: 陳麗紅
指導教授姓名: 柯立祥
出版年: 2005
學校名稱: 國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱: 農園生產系
關鍵字: 印度棗;果實理化特性;雙S型;1-Methlcyclopropene(1-MCP);貯藏;Indian jujube;fruit growth and development;storage;1-MCP treatment;respiration and ethylene production;storage life
摘要: 本試驗主要目的,研究屏東地區所栽培之‘蜜棗’及‘高朗三號’品種為本試驗之材料,並針對兩印度棗果實進行生長發育之理化特性調查,並探討成熟果實不同部位可溶性固形物變化、採收後生理生化變化、貯藏及1-MCP處理,對延長果實貯藏壽命及維持果實品質之影響。試驗結果顯示,‘高朗三號’及‘蜜棗’之果實生長發育期間,其果長、果寬、鮮重及體積之生長變化均呈雙S型生長曲線。果實在著果後100-105天進入成熟期,此期間果實之果長、果寬、果重及體積接近最大,果皮顏色開始由綠轉為黃綠或黃色偏綠,可溶性固形物急速增加,可滴定酸降低,糖/酸比及維生素C含量增加。而印度棗品種(‘高朗三號’及‘蜜棗’ )均為更年性果實,兩品種在各個發育時期,採收後在20℃皆有呼吸峰和乙烯峰出現,只是出現時間和產生率有所不同。 ‘高朗三號’果實不同部位之可溶性固形物,以近果頂靠果皮部位較高,而‘蜜棗’品種則無顯著性差異,但兩品種皆以近果蒂靠果核部位較低。在不同包裝於不同貯藏溫度中(0℃-25℃),均以未加任何包裝處理之裸果失水較嚴重(約8-13%),而以PE袋密封、PE袋內附乙烯吸收劑及PE袋抽氣包裝處理失重最小(約0.2-0.4%),並較低可滴定酸含量及可溶性固形物,但有較高色相角度(θ值),而0℃貯藏時,即出現寒害徵狀。故最適‘蜜棗’及‘高朗三號’印度棗果實包裝貯藏為5℃下之PE袋密封包裝處理較佳,其貯藏壽命約達30-31天。在不同貯藏溫度下(0℃-25℃)皆有出現明顯呼吸峰與乙烯峰,並隨著貯藏溫度增加而呈現上升趨勢,並以25℃之貯藏溫度最為明顯。 ‘蜜棗’果實經不同濃度(0、0.1及1ppm)之1-MCP處理後,以1 ppm處理24小時並貯藏10℃之效果最佳,能抑制低呼吸率與乙烯產生率,並可延長‘蜜棗’果實之貯藏壽命約26.3天,且可溶性固形物與可滴定酸含量較低,及延遲果皮轉色。The series of study were conducted to elucidate the physico-chemical changes during fruit growth and development, postharvest packaging and storage, the respiration and ethylene production, and their responses to 1-MCP(1-methylcyclopropene) of two cultivars of Indian jujube (Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.), named ‘Koulan No3’ and ‘Mitzau’ were investigated. Results showed that the growth curves of fresh length、width、weigt, and volume of fruit were in a double sigmoid growth curve.The growth and develop of jujube fruit developed into maturation stage at 100-105 days after fruit set. At this stage, the fruit length and width, fresh weight, and volume reached nearly their maximum, the peel color changed rapidly from green to light green or yellowish green. As for chemical constituents, total soluble solid content, sugar/acid ratio and Vit.C content increased rapidly and reduced in titratable acidity during maturation stages. Indian jujube fruits, including ‘Mitzau’ and ‘Koulan No.3’,are typical climacteric fruits. The only difference will be the time of the peaks appeared and the production rate. When the fruits of ‘Mitzau’ and ‘Koulan No.3’ were stored at 0-25℃, the weight loss of fruits during storage were the most serious (about 8-13%) in naked, unpackaged fruits, and the least (about 0.2-0.4%) in the fruits packed with sealed PE bags, sealed in PE bags containing ethylene absorbents or vacuum packed with PE bags .The weight loss significantly increased with the increase of the storage temperature.The fruits qualities in titratable acidity and TSS were lower, but peel hue angle (θ) was higher in PE packaged fruits.The storage life of Indian jujube (cv. ‘Mitzau’ and ‘Koulan No.3’) stored at different temperatures (0-25℃), the storage life of the naked, unpackged fruits were 4-8 days, and increased significantly with lowering temperature. The longest storage life of fruits were stored at 5℃, the ‘Mitzau’ had about 30 days storage life and ‘Koulan No.3’ had about 24 days at 5℃.However, the storage life (about 28-33days)of fruits packaged with sealed PE(0.03mm) bag (including PE bag containing ethylene absorbent or vacuum packed) were also significant longer than those of naked fruits or perforated PE bag fruits. Indian jujube fruits storing at 0℃ for 7-11days exhibited surface pitting and browning symptoms of chilling injury. Therefore, Indian jujube fruits are suitable storage at 5℃ with sealed PE bags. At different storage temperatures(0-25℃) , there were exhibited climacteric respiration peak and ethylene peak, and there were clearly climacteris rise in 20℃or 25℃and exhibited typical climacteric pattern. The respiration rates and ethylene production increased with the increase of the temperature and the climacteric peak occurred were earlier with the increase of the temperature. The total soluble solid (TSS) at different parts of tissue of Indian jujube fruits(cv. ‘Mitzau’ and ‘Koulan No.3’) were determined. The near the apex tissues of fruit, the higher TSS. Furthermore, the near the skin of fruit, also the higher TSS . The TSS at different parts of tissues of ‘Mitzau’ fruit were significantly higher than those of ‘Koulan No.3’cultivar. Using 0.03mm or 0.05mm PE packed of Indian jujube fruits (cv.‘Mitzau’and ‘Koulan No.3’ ), regardless of sealed or not, their storage life and quality were significantly affected, especially, with 0.05mmPE packed. During three weeks storage at 5℃, vacuum packed of 0.05mm PE produced off-flavor, and were severely with the increase of the storage duration. Obviously, vacuum packed of 0.05mm PE is not suitable on Indian jujube fruits. The respiration and ethylene production rate were lower in ‘Mitzau’ fruit treated with 0.1 or 1ppm 1-MCP for 12hrs or 24hrs at 10℃or 25℃and stored at same temperatures. During storage, the titratable acidity and vitamin C content and peel lightness (L) lower than those of control fruits, but fruit firmness and peel hue angle (θ) were higher. Results showed that Indian jujube fruits treated with 1-MCP, were higher in firmness and retained more green color.
資源連結: 前往查看