‘北蕉’與‘寳島蕉’果實採收後生理及包裝對香蕉轉色及品質之影響

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論文名稱: ‘北蕉’與‘寳島蕉’果實採收後生理及包裝對香蕉轉色及品質之影響
研究生姓名: 王正隆
指導教授姓名: 柯立祥
出版年: 2009
學校名稱: 國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱: 農園生產系所
關鍵字: ‘北蕉’;‘寳島蕉’;呼吸率;乙烯產生率;催熟;轉色;‘Pei-Chiao’;‘Formosana’;respiration rate;ethylene production rate;artificial ripening;degreening
摘要: 本研究係針對‘北蕉’(傳統栽培香蕉品種)及‘寳島蕉’(‘北蕉’組織培養苗後代選育出之抗黃葉病且豐產之優良品種),探討兩品種香蕉果實採後生理、品質及不同打孔數PE袋襯裡包裝對香蕉催熟轉色之影響。紙箱包裝方式包括無PE袋襯裡包裝(CK)及48孔、64孔、80孔及96孔PE袋襯裡包裝,PE厚度除48孔為0.02㎜外,其餘均為0.035㎜。供試香蕉均採自台灣香蕉研究所農場依香蕉良好作業規範(TGAP)所生產之香蕉。此外,亦同時比較同一果串不同果手間及同一果手不同部位(左邊、中央、右邊)果指之品質差異。 結果顯示,‘北蕉’及‘寳島蕉’在15℃、20及25℃貯藏,更年前期(pre- climacteric period)之‘北蕉’呼吸率(mgCO2/kg-hr)分別為11.29;12.86;19.65,‘寳島蕉’之呼吸率分別為13.47;13.91;21.90。兩品種香蕉之呼吸率均隨着貯藏溫度之提高而增加。‘北蕉’之呼吸率略低於‘寳島蕉’。呼吸更年上升之時間,(climacteric rise),除在15℃貯藏,兩品種無差異外(約32天),在20℃及25℃貯藏,‘北蕉’更年上升之時間均略早於‘寳島蕉’約2天(20℃)及7天(25℃)。在乙烯產生率方面,在15℃、20℃及25℃貯藏,更年前期之‘北蕉’乙烯產生率在0.06-0.08μl/kg-hr之間,‘寳島蕉’則在0.07-0.11μl/kg-hr之間。兩品種在貯藏期間之更年呼吸峰及乙烯峰出現之時間,‘北蕉’均較‘寳島蕉’早,推測與‘北蕉’催熟轉色速率較‘寳島蕉’快有關。 不同打孔數PE袋襯裡包裝香蕉,經乙烯催熟轉色至6級(全黃)時,不論是‘北蕉’或‘寳島蕉均以PE袋襯裡包裝者之果實硬度(含果皮)顯著低於無PE袋襯裡包裝者,但對果肉硬度並無影響。可溶性固形物含量及糖/酸比,則以PE袋襯裡包裝者較高,特別是‘寳島蕉’在有無PE袋襯裡包裝間,呈顯著差異。果皮亮度(L值)則以PE袋襯裡包裝之香蕉顯著高於無PE袋襯裡包裝者;色相角度(θ值),則以PE袋襯裡包裝者顯著較低,顯示其果皮顏色較黃。在香蕉轉色速率方面,香蕉經乙烯催熟處理後轉色至4級(果皮黃多於綠;一般商業催熟時,移出催熟室至市場銷售之顏色指數)之時間,無PE袋襯裡包裝之‘北蕉’需5天,‘寳島蕉’需6天,較‘北蕉’慢1天。但香蕉經PE袋襯裡包裝,會加速香蕉轉色。在‘北蕉’,以48孔PE袋襯裡包裝者,只需4天,可縮短1天,而‘寳島蕉’方面,以48孔PE袋襯裡包裝者亦較無PE袋襯裡包裝者縮短1天,但PE袋打孔數在64至96孔之襯裡香蕉,其轉色至4級之時間,均只需4天,與48孔PE袋襯裡之‘北蕉’轉色同步一致。因此,當兩種轉色速率不一致之香蕉如‘北蕉’及‘寳島蕉’,在同一催熟室及同一條件下催熟,可利用不同打孔數之PE袋(‘北蕉’48孔,‘寳島蕉’64-96孔)襯裡包裝,而達齊一轉色同時出庫之目標。兩品種之橱架壽命並無顯著差異。 香蕉同一果串不同果手間之果指重、果肉重及果皮重,不論‘北蕉’或‘寳島蕉’,一般以第1-3果手較重(第一果手不一定最重),第4果手至最未果手,依次遞減。‘寳島蕉’之果指重一般顯著高於‘北蕉’。不同果手間之果肉可溶性固形物含量、可滴定酸、pH值及糖/酸比之高低,與果手之上下位置並無絕對之關係,但‘寳島蕉’之可滴定酸顯著高於‘北蕉’,而糖/酸比則相反。果實硬度(含果皮)及果肉硬度,一般在果手間並無顯著差異,但‘北蕉’之果實硬度顯著低於‘寳島蕉’,果肉硬度則無顯著差異。果實色澤(果皮亮度、色相角度、色彩濃度),在不同果手及品種間,一般並無顯著差異。 ‘北蕉’及‘寳島蕉’在同一果手不同部位(左邊、中央、右邊)果指之果重、果肉重及果皮重,果實硬度、果肉可溶性固形物含量、可滴定酸、pH值、果皮色澤(L值、θ值、C值)均無顯著差異。 ‘北蕉’與‘寳島蕉’黃熟時之可溶性醣含量,均以蔗糖含量最高約佔總醣含量之66.5-71.0%左右,其次為葡萄糖(約佔15.4-17.8%),而以果糖含量較低(約佔14.1-16.5%)。果糖:葡萄糖:蔗糖之比約等於1.0:1.0-1.2:4.0-4.9。The study was to investigate the fruit postharvest physiology, quality and the effect of hole number of perforated PE bag in carton on peel color during ripening of two Taiwan major banana cultivars, ‘Pei- Chiao’ (traditional commercial cultivar) and ‘Formosana’ (resisting banana fusarium wilt and high yield cultivar selected from ‘Pei- Chiao’ tissue culture plants) were packed by following perforated PE bag treatments: control (no PE bag), 48-hole PE bag, 64-hole PE bag, 80-hole PE bag, and 96-hole PE bag within cardboard carton. The PE bag thickness in this experiment was 0.035 mm except 48-hole PE bag was 0.02mm. The materials of banana were harvested from Taiwan Banana Research Institute which produced following Taiwan Good Agriculture Practice (TGAP). Fruit quality of banana at different hands in the same bunch and at different sites (left, middle and right) of fingers in a same hand were also compared. Results showed the respiration rate of banana fruits during pre-climacteric period of ‘Pei- Chiao’ stored in 15, 20 and 25℃ were 11.29, 12.86 and 19.65 mgCO2/Kg-hr; and ‘Formosana’ were 13.47, 13.19, and 21.90 mgCO2/Kg-hr, respectively. During storage, the respiration rate increased with increased storage temperature. The respiration rate of ‘Pei- Chiao’ was slight lower than that of ‘Formosana’. The time of climacteric rise were not different (ca.32 days) between the two cultivars when storage in 15℃. However, storage in 20 and 25℃, the climacteric rise of ‘Pei- Chiao’ appeared earlier (ca. 2 days in 20℃ and 7 days in 25℃) than ‘Formosana’. In storage, the ethylene production during pre-climacteric period of ‘Pei- Chiao’ and ‘Formosana’ were 0.06-0.08 μl/kg-hr and 0.07-0.11 μl/kg-hr respectively. The peak of respiration rate and ethylene production rate of ‘Pei- Chiao’ were earlier than those of ‘Formosana’. The ‘Pei- Chiao’ showed a faster degreening rate than that of ‘Formosana’. Packaging treatments showed the firmness of fruits with peel packed with perforated PE bag were lower than those without packed fruits in both cultivars. However, the PE packaging didn’t affect pulp firmness in the two cultivars. The total soluble solids content and sugar/acid ratio of bananas packed by perforated PE bag were higher than those of control and especially significantly higher in ‘Formosana’. The lightness of fruits packed with PE bag were significantly higher than those of control. The hue angle of packed fruits were significantly lower than those without packed fruits and the peel color were more yellow. The degreening of peel color of control reached to color index 4 (more yellow than green) was 5 and 6 days for ‘Pei- Chiao’ and ‘Formosana’, respectively. However, the degreening rate were enhanced by PE packaging. The degreening rate of ‘Pei- Chiao’ packed by 48-hole PE bag was 4 days and shortened about 1 day than those without packed. That also shortened 1 day in ‘Formosana’ packed by 48-hole PE bag. However, the degreening rate of ‘Formosana’ packed by 64-hole,80-hole and 96-hole PE bag were 4 days and the same as ‘Pei- Chiao’ packed by 48-hole PE bag. There were no difference in shelf life between these two cultivars. The first to third hand were heavier than other hand in same bunch and decreased from fourth to distal hand. The total soluble solid content, titratable acidity, pH value and sugar/acid ratio of different hands on same bunch were not significantly different. The content of titratable acidity of ‘Formosana’ was higher than ‘Pei-Chiao’ and sugar/acid ratio was reversed. Fruit and pulp firmness in different hands were not significantly different. The fruit firmness of ‘Pei-Chiao’ were lower than ‘Formosana’, but the pulp firmness were not different between the two cultivars. The peel color (lightness, hue angle and chroma) among different hands or cultivars were not significantly different. The quality (total soluble solid, titratable acidity, pH value, firmness, color, fruit weight, pulp weight and peel weight) were not different in different sites (left, middle and right) of fingers of same hand in ‘Pei-Chiao’ and ‘Formosana’. Sucrose were the major soluble sugars of ‘Pei-Chiao’ and ‘Formosana’ fruit after ripening. It account for 66.5-71 % of soluble sugars in fruit and follows by glucose (15.4- 17.8%) and fructose (14.1-16.5%). The ratio of fructose : glucose : sucrose was 1.0 : 1.0-1.2 : 4.0-4.9
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