利用替代介質栽培菇類模式及菇類保鮮之研究

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計畫名稱: 利用替代介質栽培菇類模式及菇類保鮮之研究
計畫主持人: 洪進雄
共同計畫主持人: 林慧玲;陳啟楨;黃三光
計畫編號: 102農科-9.2.2-糧-Z2(9)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 嘉義大學園藝學系
全程計畫年: 2013
關鍵字: 玉米穗軸;杏鮑菇;木屑;蔗渣;竹;園藝作物殘質;栽培廢料;液體菌種;固體菌種;Corn cob;sugarcane bagassePleurotus eryngii ;sawdust;sugarcane bagasse;Bamboo;Lignocellulose-rich waste materials;Spent substrate;Liquid spawn;Solid spawn
摘要: 本計畫以玉米穗軸(玉米芯)。甘蔗渣為木屑之替代介質,配合木屑組合成六個栽培介質配方栽培木生菇類,藉由菌絲生長、產量及品質評估木生菇類(杏鮑菇)生產的適用性及可能性,期望可以解決國內本省木屑不足之問題及增進農民收益。台灣有許多富含木質素的農業廢棄物,包含許多果樹強剪後的枝條、蔗渣、稻草等,本計畫擬探討這些農業廢棄物是否可做為太空包內木質素之來源,以替代鋸木屑之可行性,以做為未來進口短缺鋸木屑之因應策略。目前已篩選出40種具替代鋸木屑之農業廢棄殘質替代比例25-50%,以竹子、香蕉等廢棄枝葉取得容易且可促進菌絲及子實體生長,但仍需進一步評估大量栽培模式之可行性。菇類具高呼吸採後不易保鮮,本計畫擬逐年建立各項鮮食用菇類之貯運保鮮條件以減少損耗。先期研究成果發現杏鮑菇栽培廢太空包直接打散,調整含水量至65%,未添加額外養份的情況下,立即充填太空包,滅菌,冷卻,接種杏鮑菇木屑菌種,初期試驗結果與現行業者栽培杏鮑菇配方比較,菌絲生長期相近,每一包太空包產量鮮重僅少約60公克,顯示再次重覆使用基質潛力大,有助於改善原料日益短缺的困境。本計畫目的擬探討配方調整及組合研究,以求最大廢木屑替代基質的使用量及最小新材與營養源添加量,可以生產與現行杏鮑菇栽培配方生產量為目標。Corn cob crushes and sugarcane were used as a new substrate in order to instead of sawdust for growing medium in the study. Six growing medium were combined by sawdust and Corn cob crushes , sugarcane bagasse for growing Pleurotus eryngii . But the suitability and posasibility of Corn cob crushes and sugarcane bagasse for Pleurotus eryngii growing could be evaluated by growth of mycelium , yield and quality of Pleurotus eryngii .the target of the study were to solve the shortage of the sawdust and improve the profit of mushroom growers. There are lignocelluloses-rich wastes are unused in Taiwan. Most of studies about mushroom have been directed towards finding alternative substrates, and they include: sawdust from different tree, species, sugarcane bagasse,straw, grass.The aim of the present study is that evaluate some abundant lignocellosic such as banan, india jujube,and bamboo wastes in Taiwan for king oyster cultivation and increased the quality and yield. The other research objetive is to establishe the optimal preseravtion technology of fresh edible mushroom and decrease postharvest loss.A previous study has proved that the spent substrate of Pleurotus eryngii used for cultivation of the same mushroom by simply water content adjust to 65% RH, filling into plastic bags, sterilized, cooling and inoculation, the result indicated it is no significantly different with those of routine farmers’ process but only reducing yield ca. 60g fresh fruiting body per bag. The investigation showed the potentiality of spent substrate reused once for the wood-decayed mushroom cultivation. However, the study needs to design and experiment detail conditions for enhancing the yield compared with the current process of the growers.
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