|關鍵字： 氯砒脲；壓差預冷；壓差預冷；預冷設備研發；採後病害；採後處理；採後處理；冰水預冷；印度棗；上蠟；寒害；鳳梨；園產品；裂果；外銷；壓差預冷；預冷；真空預冷；甜豌豆；小果番茄；田間病害管理；內部褐化；貯藏期病害；外銷；冷卻曲線；預冷；預冷；葉綠素；紅龍果；番石榴；壓差預冷CPPU；forced-air cooling；Forced-air cooling；precooling facility innovation；post-harvest diseases；postharvest handling；Postharvest Treatment；Hydrocooling；Indian jujube；waxing；chilling；pineapple；horticultural product；split；exportation；forced-air cooling；prec
|摘要： 整合田間栽培及採後處理技術改善紅龍果貯運性</strong>在紅龍果開花當日分別處理CPPU 100ppm, 海草萃取物稀釋50倍，以及花後3天利用乳白打孔塑膠袋套袋，於採後分別套上含有無孔洞、2個直徑0.6 cm孔洞的PE袋，以及裸果的3種處理進行5℃下分別貯藏21天 (模擬運 送加拿大21天)，10天 (模擬運 送新加坡10天)後，在20℃下回溫三天調查果實外觀色澤，苞片顏色 ，苞片硬度，果實品質。 另外在開花期用推薦用藥62.5% 賽普護汰寧 水分散性粒劑稀釋2000倍，採收後對照組及處理組以58℃溫湯處理 15秒後風乾再逐果套袋，5℃下分別貯藏21天 (模擬運 送加拿大21天)，10天 (模擬運 送新加坡10天)後，在20℃下回溫三天調查果實品質及腐敗率。 <strong>可移動型預冷模組之研發與應用</strong>台灣有許多中小型農民收穫後，採收之水果和蔬菜在場域內持續增溫。而在現場堆放時無遮陰裝置，或者在運輸到包裝場域之前或運輸時沒有遮陰的車輛。此時呼吸熱還會持續產生，此時如進行低溫貯運，但溫度能下降的十分緩慢。農產品脫水或過度成熟會對品質產生巨大的影響，因此迫切需要立即解決問題。 此外，由於台灣農民的耕地面積通常很小（一公頃以內），因此很難引進大規模的作業設施。預冷設備必須發展成較小的尺寸規模的以消除現場熱量。 研發可於產地使用之移動型預冷機組，可快速去除田間熱，以及配合實作場域於產地進行產品降溫，以鏈結後續貯運之冷鏈管理。並加強改善研發之預冷機組，加強應用於產地使用。未來主要目標為三個方向分別是：1.採收後快速去除田間熱之機組研發與現地推廣應用(109-112)。2. 採後低溫貯藏預冷降溫改善與產地引入冷鏈流程建立110-112)。3. 加工與級包裝處理場不同品項預冷產學鏈結(111-112)。 <strong>利用採收前後處理以降低小果番茄在冷鏈貯運的裂果與病害發生率</strong>由於在臺灣小果番茄果實貯運期的病害研究不多，本研究將針對臺灣產小果番茄果實貯運期的病害進行病因、生態與防治研究，以確保外銷貯運的果實品質。本計畫先確定小果番茄貯運病害的病因與裂果的原因，建立設施栽培小果番茄的採收前處理的技術，包括施肥、水份與病害控制，以減少裂果與貯運易發生之病害，建立設施栽培小果番茄的採收後處理的技術，包括表面消毒資材與精油薰蒸等，整合小果番茄採收前與採收後的處理技術以降低貯運的裂果與病害發生率，並將整合技術實地應用於示範場域，以達成外銷實證。 <strong>整合紅龍果與印度棗田間到採後技術防治冷鏈過程之貯藏期病害</strong>紅龍果與印度棗為臺灣重要的熱帶經濟果樹，在冷鏈過程中果品常因褐斑病、炭疽病、果腐病及濕腐病等由病原菌引發之「貯藏期病害」降低商品價值，導致果實貯運不易。目前多以採收後處理做為防治手段，然而可能預冷不確實，或是預冷處理雖能使果實達到保鮮作用，但不足以完全遏止耐冷病原菌發病。紅龍果方面，經先期研究，確定多數貯藏期病害係由田間感染，且難僅透過採後處理大幅降低病害發生率，而本研究團隊已初步開發單點式之防治技術防治，然缺乏整合各技術之測試，亦缺乏場域實證以因應田間多變之變因。本計畫預計於紅龍果產銷班1處、昕田合作社與裕泰農場合作，透過個別確立田間、採收後病害防治管理模式(包括田間套袋配合用藥、採收前夕施用次氯酸水、測試浸泡高安全性藥劑、壓差預冷等；原109年測試之紅龍果可食性披覆材料及非農藥防治資材防治病害與降低鱗片萎凋試驗，因為每批次降低損耗率效果不穩定，故先暫緩)，輔導農民自田間即開始防治。此3處紅龍果場域保守預估全年冷鏈時期損耗率大約為20%-30%，本計畫研擬之防治措施預期可降低20%損耗率，可增加每年至少250萬收益。印度棗方面，目前缺乏貯藏期病害基礎研究，病原菌以及其生態調查資料尚未建立，急待研究資料供進階應用。本計畫預計透過調查冷鏈過程病害相與生態調查，並以之為基礎，篩選化學藥劑及非農藥防治資材、採收後資材處理及改善貯藏場所流程等，於裕泰農場(印度棗損耗率20%)實測並調整操作模式，期能降低損耗率30%以上，可增加每年至少70萬收益。綜合以上，本計畫擬於場域逐步實測一系列之「田間到採後之整合式管理技術」，並已於第一年有初步成果，期未來待技術更成熟可提供產業服務團利用，短期而言降低病害發生率以減少損失；長期而言，因為貯藏期病害常在貯運過程中發病，消費者或外銷國家到貨及櫥架品質不佳，進而影響下次訂購意願。透過本技術之開發期能降低發病率，間接加強消費者或外銷國對臺灣紅龍果與印度棗信心，擴展臺灣農產品海內外市場。本計畫擬透過舉辦觀摩會、文宣宣傳品、教育訓練或者座談會等方式，向生產方與供貨商說明，以期將技術落地並擴散。 <strong>近郊蔬菜預冷及貯藏之冷鏈設備改善</strong> 本計畫主要目的為改善北部近郊蔬菜預冷及貯藏之冷鏈技術。桃園市八德區蔬菜產業長期以來供應大台北地區，近年栽培技術也越來越進步，但是由於產地離消費端較近，採後處理預冷大部分仍沿用早期技術，如低預冷效率水冷與室冷。目前業者逐漸面臨轉型，消費端要求供貨量有高低需求之問題，因此需要貯藏一部份蔬菜來因應。目前蔬菜應用水冷與室冷預冷技術只能貯藏7日，蔬菜供貨調節彈性不夠，需要改善之方法。 本試驗擬以提升壓縮機冷凍噸及增加冷水效能使冷水維持低溫應用於帶根蔬菜預冷，應用壓差預冷方式處理不帶根蔬菜，以及導入塑膠袋包裝方式改善葉菜類貯藏技術，建構完善的近郊蔬菜冷鏈系統，穩定農民收益。 <strong>建立豌豆及番石榴長程貯運預冷技術</strong>豌豆(<em>Pisum sativum </em>L.)為中部重要地區性蔬菜，近年來日本、新加坡及香港等均有消費需求，具為外銷潛力，然其長程貯運不易且缺乏預冷技術導入應用。故本研究擬針對豌豆進行預冷技術開發，包含室內風冷、壓差預冷及真空預冷效益評估，並建立真空預冷處理時效、最終溫度、預冷時間、水分補充等重要關鍵參數，以提升現有貯運到貨品質，因應未來國內外市場需求。我國非更年型番石榴(<em>Psidium guajava</em>)果實與國外更年型品種有明顯區隔，並具保健營養的價值，經過持續推廣宣傳番石榴鮮食營養成分，提高知名度以拓展國際市場，近10年來臺灣番石榴外銷明顯成長。然番石榴外銷面臨的瓶頸包括主要產期夏季果實品質不一、低溫貯藏能力差、果實質地軟化、採後貯藏病害發生等問題。夏秋高溫採收期使果實累積較高的田間熱及呼吸熱，使其生理代謝旺盛，不僅增加果實去除田間熱及呼吸熱的降溫時間及能源，同時加速果實品質劣變、降低逆境抵抗能力、降低貯運能力及外銷到貨品質。為提升番石榴外銷品質，田間採收後預冷作業若能落實，將可增加番石榴採後品質及貯運能力。 <strong>鳳梨外銷新式包裝及品質改善</strong>為改善外銷鳳梨到貨後常見因貯運期間溫度控制不良造成之果心褐化及果實劣變等問題，擬利用果實上蠟處理延緩模擬貯運後果心褐化之寒害徵狀發生，並利用導入新型包裝配合果品包裝後之壓差預冷，改善貨櫃內果實溫度之均一性。本年度將進行上蠟處理之鳳梨於7天或14天航程之適當貯運溫度之重複試驗；並以改良式外銷鳳梨包裝紙箱及頂吸式壓差預冷測試機進行包裝後之鳳梨壓差預冷測試，探討對模擬貯運後品質之影響；期能提供產業投資鳳梨水洗上蠟設備、採後預冷技術及包裝紙箱版型改進之相關資訊。Integrating field management and post-harvest technology to improve storage and transportation of red-fleshed dragon fruit</strong>CPPU 100ppm, diluted seaweed extract 50 times, and cover it with a milky white perforated plastic bag 3 days after flowering, and then cover fruit with non-porous holes and 2 A PE bag with a hole of 0.6 cm in diamete,r and naked fruit were stored at 5°C for 21 days (simulated delivery to Canada for 21 days), and after 10 days (simulated delivery to Singapore for 10 days), shifted to 20°C for shelf-life investigation including the appearance, color, bract color, bract hardness, and fruit quality of the fruit. In addition, during the flowering period, it was diluted 2000 times with 62.5% Saipu Hutening water-dispersible granules. After harvest, the control group and the treatment group were treated with a warm soup at 58°C for 15 seconds, then air-dried and bagged each fruit at 5°C. After storing for 21 days (simulating delivery to Canada for 21 days) and 10 days (simulating delivery to Singapore for 10 days), the fruit quality and spoilage rate were investigated at 20°C for 3 days. <strong>Innovation and application of portable precooling modelization facility</strong>There are many small and medium-sized farmers in Taiwan. After harvesting, there was within high field heat of fruits and vegetables. There is no shading device when stacked in field, or the vehicle without shading before or when it transported to packing house. Breathing heat also continues to be produced, which inflenced fruit/vegetable temperature drop slowly when stored in refrigrator and transported. Products dehydration or over maturity were dramatic impacts, so it is urgent to sort out for a solution immediately. In addition, due to the generally small cultivation area (within one hectare) of Taiwanese farmers, it is difficult to introduce large-scale facility for operation. The pre-cooling facility removed field heat that is bound to develop tiny size scale is necessary. The effect of removing field heat or pre-cooling is necessary, too. Research and develop a portable pre-cooling unit that can be used in the field, which can quickly remove field heat, and co-operate in field for cooling products helping to introduce the cold chain management. Improving research and development of the pre-cooling unit. The main goals in the future are three directions: 1. R&D and local promotion for application units to quickly remove field heat after harvest (109-112). 2. Postharvest low-temperature storage, pre-cooling and cooling improvement by cold chain process in the production area (110-112) 3. The pre-cooling industry-link different items by processing and grading plants (111-112). <strong>Using pre- and post- harvest treatment to reduce incidences of fruit cracking and diseases of cherry tomato during cold-chain transportation</strong>Because there are not many studies on the diseases of cherry tomato during storage and transportation in Taiwan, this proposal will study the topic to ensure the fruit quality of cherry tomato in export and transportation. Firstly, the causes of the disease and the fruit cracking of cherry tomato should be confirmed. Secondly, the suitable pre-harvesting treatment of cherry tomato should be established for planting cherry tomato, including fertilization, water and disease control. Third, optimal post-harvest processing should be set up, including surface disinfection and essential oil fumigation, etc. Finally, the pre- and post- harvest treatment of processing could be integrated to reduce the incidence of cracking and diseases in storage and transportation, and the integration technology could be applied to the fields for exportation. <strong>Integrating field to post-harvest technology to prevent diseases during cold chain of pitaya and Indian jujube</strong>Red dragon fruit and Indian jujube are important tropical economic fruit trees in Taiwan. During the cold chain process, fruits often suffer from "storage diseases during storage period" caused by pathogens such as brown spot disease, anthracnose, fruit rot and wet rot. As a result, fruits are not easy to store and transport. At present, post-harvest treatment is mostly used as a control method, however, pre-cooling may not be accurate, or although pre-cooling treatment can achieve fruit preservation, it is not enough to completely prevent the occurrence of cold-resistant pathogens. In terms of red dragon fruit, through early research, it was determined that most of the diseases during storage were infected by the field, and it is difficult to significantly reduce the incidence of the disease only through post-harvest handling. However, the research team has initially developed a single-point control technology for prevention and control, but lacks integration. The testing of various technologies also lacks field evidence to cope with the changing factors in the field. This plan is expected to cooperate with 1Red Dragon Fruit Production and Marketing Class and 1 Green Fruit Cooperative, through individual establishment of field and post-harvest disease prevention and management modes (including field bagging with drugs, application of hypochlorous water on the eve of harvest, test immersion) High-safety medicines, forced-air cooling, counseling farmers to prevent and control from the field. The 2 red dragon fruit fields conservatively estimate that the disease losses during the cold chain period will be large throughout the year. The control measures proposed in this plan are expected to reduce the incidence of 50-60% and increase annual revenue by at least 1 million. As for Indian jujube, there is currently no basic research on diseases during storage, and pathogenic bacteria and their ecological survey data have not yet been established. Research data are urgently needed for further application. The plan is to investigate and adjust the chemical chain and non-pesticide control materials, post-harvest materials handling, and improve the storage site process by investigating the disease phase and ecological survey of the cold chain process, and based on this. The operating mode can reduce the incidence of disease. Based on the above, the plan is to gradually measure a series of "field-to-harvest integrated management technology" in the field. The periodical results can be used by industrial service groups to reduce the incidence of disease in the short term to reduce losses; in the long term because the disease during storage often develops during transportation, the quality of the goods delivered by the consumer or the country of export and the shelf is not good, which will affect the next ordering intention. Through the development of this technology, the incidence can be reduced and the consumer or export will be indirectly strengthened. China has confidence in Taiwan’s red dragon fruit and Indian dates, increasing its willingness to buy again, and expanding domestic and overseas markets for Taiwan ’s agricultural products. <strong>Improvement of cold chain equipment for pre-cooling and storage of suburban vegetables</strong> The main purpose of this project is to improve the cold chain technology for vegetable pre-cooling and storage in northern suburbs. The vegetable industry in the Bade District of Taoyuan City have been supplying the Greater Taipei Area for a long time, and cultivation techniques have also been increasingly improved in recent years. However, due to the proximity of the production area to the consumer side, most of the post-harvest of pre-cooling still uses the early technology, such as low cooling efficiency hydrocooling and room cooling. Nowadays, the industry is gradually facing the problem of inconsistent quantity of vegetables needed from consumer without sufficient cold chain technology. At present, vegetables can only be stored for 7 days using low cooling efficiency hydrocooling and room-cooling. The supply of vegetables is not flexible enough. Therefore, the technique for producers to prolong vegetables storage period to meet consumer demands is necessary. The project is conducted to pre-cool the rooted vegetables by raising the refrigeration capacity of the compressor and the addition of condensing equipment to keep the cold water at a low temperature. It is applied to the pre-cooling of rooted vegetables, the use of forced-air cooling to treat non-rooted vegetables, and the introduction of pre-cooling and plastic bag packaging methods to improve leaf vegetable storage. Build a perfect cold chain system for suburban vegetables to stabilize farmers' income. <strong>Establishment of Pre-cooling Technology for Long-term Transportation of Sweet Pea and Guava</strong>Pea (<em>Pisum sativum </em>L<em>.</em>) is an important regional vegetable in central Taiwan. It is a potentical exporting crop due to the increasing demand of exporting market in Japan, Singapore, and Hong Kong recent years. However, the long-term storage/transportation of pea is difficult and lacking of the pre-cooling technology application. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop pre-cooling technology for pea. Firstly, the effeciency of air cooling, forced air pre-cooling, and vacuum pre-cooling was evaluated. Then the key parameters of vacuum pre-cooling included treated timming, final temperature, pre-cooling duration, and watering were builded. It hopes to promote the current arrival quality and responding to domestic as well as exporting marketing in the future. The fruit of non-climacteric fruit guava (<em>Psidium guajava</em>) in Taiwan is clearly separated from foreign menopausal varieties. It has the value of health and nutrition. After continuing to promote and publicize the nutritional ingredients of guava in fresh food and increase its popularity to expand the international market, the export of Taiwan guava has grown significantly in the past 10 years. However, the bottlenecks faced by guava export sales include the different quality of summer fruits during the main production period, poor low-temperature storage capacity, softening of the fruit texture, and occurrence of diseases in postharvest storage. The summer and autumn high temperature harvesting period makes the fruit accumulate higher field heat and respiratory heat, which makes its physiological metabolism vigorous, which not only increases the cooling time and energy for the fruit to remove the field heat and respiratory heat, but also accelerates the deterioration of fruit quality and reduces the resistance to adversity. Reduce the storage and transportation capacity and the quality of goods delivered abroad. In order to improve the quality of guava for export, if the pre-cooling operation after field harvest can be implemented, it will increase the quality of guava after harvest and its storage and transportation capacity. <strong>New Packaging and Quality Improvement of Pineapple for Export</strong>To ameliorate the problem of internal browning and quality deterioration of pineapple fruit when arriving to export destination, which is caused by poor temperature control during storage and transportation, we planned to use waxing treatment to ease internal browning, the syndrome of chilling injury of pineapple fruit, and use new package carton type cooperating with force air cooling after fruit packaging to improve the uniformity of fruit temperature in the container. The confirmation test of suitable temperature setting for 7 or 14 days transportation of waxed pineapple will be investigated in this year. An improved packaging carton and a top suction force cooling test machine will be tested on export pineapple, to understand the effect on fruit quality after simulate storage and transportation. We expect to provide relevant information to the industry, to be a reference for pineapple washing and waxing equipment investment, postharvest cooling technique, and carton pattern design improvement.