冷鏈基石預冷、包裝及貯運之技研佈局

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計畫名稱: 冷鏈基石預冷、包裝及貯運之技研佈局
計畫主持人: 徐敏記
共同計畫主持人: 張致盛;江一蘆;羅佩昕;王斐能;呂朝元;何振隆;林振榮;張栢滄;黃晉興;王怡玎;陳思如;吳庭嘉;李艷琪;李堂察
計畫編號: 109農科-23.1.1-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所作物組
全程計畫年: 2020
關鍵字: 木質微纖維;番石榴;採後處理;安全抑菌資材;裂果;內部褐化;有益微生物;採後處理;壓差預冷;採後處理;氯砒脲;預冷;小果番茄;印度棗;後熟;田間管理;氣變包裝;多酚類化合物;葉綠素;冷卻曲線;酪梨;寒害;紅龍果;多孔性炭材;採後病害;上蠟;貯藏期病害;寒害;披覆資材;冷鏈;Wood-microfibril;guava;postharvest;non-chemical materials;split;internal browning;beneficial microorganisms;Postharvest Treatment;pressure cooling;postharvest handling;CPPU;precooling;cherry tomato;Indian jujube;ripening;disease management in field;Modifi
摘要: 整合田間栽培及採後包裝技術改善紅龍果貯運性 由於外觀顏色是消費者判斷園產品品質重要指標之一,因此為了探討如何改善紅龍果果實採收後苞片容易黃化萎凋,導致失去商品價值,因此在紅龍果開花當日處理100 ppm CPPU,於採後分別套上含有無孔洞、2個直徑0.6 cm孔洞、10個直徑0.2cm孔洞的PE袋,以及裸果的4種處理,探討採前CPPU與採後包裝最有利於延緩貯藏紅龍果苞片黃化發生之組合。 酪梨採後處理、貯藏、包裝及運銷冷鏈技術之研發改良與產業應用 酪梨採後處理、貯藏、包裝及運銷冷鏈技術之研發改良與產業應用      本計畫擬改善台灣酪梨鮮果內銷常見的販售期間腐損與軟熟障礙降低品質。主要工作包括:(1)選定數個最普遍的品種,建立成熟度及含油量在內的品質選別標準及方法,供產地或集貨包裝場應用。(2)試驗研究採後處理、運銷或貯藏過程中溫度與販售壽命及最終品質之關係,作為冷鏈貯、運、銷應用之依據。(3)研發人工催熟以及延遲後熟之實用方法,以備調節供銷數量平衡之用。(4)建立從採收到零售之間的冷鏈處理流程及技術,俾各項改良之效果能綜合表現,達到最高效率。研究人員與本計畫合作場域(果農、集貨場、批發商、零售商)保持密切聯繫,一項項研究成果確定後立刻到現場試用。最後將各項成果串連起來,藉冷鏈技術整合成為一體,發揮最大功效。 可移動型預冷模組之研發與應用 台灣中小型農戶多,在採後收往往因爲採收溫度過高,田間堆放時無遮陰裝置,或運送到集理貨場時車輛無遮陰,田間熱不斷累積導致園產品表面溫度過高,呼吸熱也隨之不斷產產生,導致鏈接後端貯運時溫度下降過慢,產品失水或後熟情形影響甚劇,因此急需尋求一解決方式。又臺灣農戶因栽培面積普遍較小(一公頃內),因此於操作時難以導入大型機具,是以勢必開發於產地集貨包裝廠或田邊工寮旁可用之去除田間熱之預冷機組,達到去除田間熱或預冷降溫之效果有所必要。    研發可於產地使用之移動型預冷機組,可快速去除田間熱,以及配合實作場域於產地進行產品降溫,以鏈結後續貯運之冷鏈管理。並加強改善研發之預冷機組,加強應用於產地使用。未來主要目標為三個方向分別是:1.採收後快速去除田間熱之機組研發與現地推廣應用(109-112)。2. 採後低溫貯藏預冷降溫改善與貯藏異味探究(110-112)。3. 加工與分級包裝場不同品項預冷產學鏈結(111-112)。園產品預冷是為了解決解決田間熱過高影響呼吸熱,導致園產品易過熟不易標準化供應後段通路鏈之問題,研發與導入應用相關預冷模組,協助生產端(農場)鏈結供貨端(供貨商與加工廠)之冷鏈基石預冷模組有其必要性。 全程目標含有下列各項: 1. 採收後快速去除田間熱之機組研發與現地推廣應用(109-112)。2. 採後低溫貯藏預冷降溫改善與貯藏異味探究(110-112)。3. 加工與分級包裝場不同品項預冷產學鏈結(111-112) 利用採收前後處理以降低小果番茄在冷鏈貯運的裂果與病害發生率 由於在臺灣小果番茄果實貯運期的病害研究不多,本研究將針對臺灣產小果番茄果實貯運期的病害進行病因、生態與防治研究,以確保外銷貯運的果實品質。本計畫先確定小果番茄貯運病害的病因與裂果的原因,建立設施栽培小果番茄的採收前處理的技術,包括施肥、水份與病害控制,以減少裂果與貯運易發生之病害,建立設施栽培小果番茄的採收後處理的技術,包括表面消毒資材與精油薰蒸等,整合小果番茄採收前與採收後的處理技術以降低貯運的裂果與病害發生率,並將整合技術實地應用於示範場域,以達成外銷實證。 整合紅龍果與印度棗田間到採後技術防治冷鏈過程之貯藏期病害 紅龍果與印度棗為臺灣重要的熱帶經濟果樹,在冷鏈過程中果品常因褐斑病、炭疽病、果腐病及濕腐病等由病原菌引發之「貯藏期病害」降低商品價值,導致果實貯運不易。目前多以採收後處理做為防治手段,然而可能預冷不確實,或是預冷處理雖能使果實達到保鮮作用,但不足以完全遏止耐冷病原菌發病。紅龍果方面,經先期研究,確定多數貯藏期病害係由田間感染,且難僅透過採後處理大幅降低病害發生率,而本研究團隊已初步開發單點式之防治技術防治,然缺乏整合各技術之測試,亦缺乏場域實證以因應田間多變之變因。本計畫預計於紅龍果產銷班1處以及青果合作社1處合作,透過個別確立田間、採收後病害防治管理模式(包括田間套袋配合用藥、採收前夕施用次氯酸水、測試浸泡高安全性藥劑、壓差預冷、利用可食性披覆材料及非農藥防治資材等),輔導農民自田間即開始防治。此2處紅龍果場域保守預估全年冷鏈時期病害損失大,本計畫研擬之防治措施預期可降低50-60%發病率,可增加每年至少100萬收益。印度棗方面,目前缺乏貯藏期病害基礎研究,病原菌以及其生態調查資料尚未建立,急待研究資料供進階應用。本計畫預計透過調查冷鏈過程病害相與生態調查,並以之為基礎,篩選化學藥劑及非農藥防治資材、採收後資材處理及改善貯藏場所流程等,於至少1場域實測並調整操作模式,期能降低病害發生率。綜合以上,本計畫擬於場域逐步實測一系列之「田間到採後之整合式管理技術」,期成果可提供產業服務團利用,短期而言降低病害發生率以減少損失;長期而言,因為貯藏期病害常在運送過程中發病,消費者或外銷國家到貨及櫥架品質不佳,進而影響下次訂購意願,透過本技術之開發期能降低發病率,間接加強消費者或外銷國對臺灣紅龍果與印度棗信心,增加再次購買意願,擴展臺灣農產品海內外市場。 循環木質材料衍生物研發新型態包裝冷鏈資材 篩選對蔬果腐敗及變質之具有抗菌微生物作用的天然植物抽出成份,許多植物及其抽出成分具有一定的防腐抑菌作用,利用這些天然植物型防腐抑菌劑可防止食品腐敗、發揮保鮮作用的同時,還具有抗氧化和防病保健的功能。利用萃取出來的植物抽出成分,製作天然蔬果保鮮劑,篩選出具有抗菌及無細胞毒性的抽出成分,用來減緩鳳梨在航運中後熟導致腐爛及切口發霉等問題。以抗菌物質及木質微纖維運用於蔬果運輸儲存保鮮包裝紙箱袋更新及研發,藉由物理法及化學法製備木質微纖維材料,並利用木質微纖維材料的特性並添加抗菌物質,應用在保鮮包裝紙箱袋方面,增加保鮮包裝紙箱袋的強度、抗菌性等,達到蔬果運輸儲存時保鮮的功效,同時達到對環境友善的目的。評估不同木質多孔性循環碳材原料與製程參數等搭配之最佳吸附乙烯之組合,藉由研發木質多孔性循環炭材製程,並輔以比表面積評估多孔材料表面積性能,開發單子葉植物多孔性炭材應用在減緩水果老化過程之附加價值,木質多孔性循環炭材為利用熱裂解方式使材料內部產生孔隙進而增加其表面積產生類似分子篩之功用,可吸附植物賀爾蒙乙烯等促進水果後熟氣體,如此便可達成延長蔬果保鮮期限之目標。炭化為一多變因控制細微之過程,材料、升溫程序、保護氣體、活化等因素皆會影響炭化最終收率與吸附性能。開發製程相關成果可供蔬果保鮮、外銷儲運產業參考及應用。 近郊蔬菜預冷及貯藏之冷鏈設備改善 本試驗主要目的為改善北部近郊設施蔬菜農場冷藏庫內蔬菜預冷及貯藏之冷鏈設備,可提高蔬菜降溫速度,較傳統氣冷方式減少蔬菜損耗率,調節蔬果產銷,穩定農民收益。開發GPS位置感測器,提供農友追蹤蔬菜在運送過程中溫度變化及位置距離。 利用安全抑菌資材克服番石榴果實採後病害問題 番石榴可週年生產,深具外銷潛力之果品,且其營養價值豐富,富含維生素C、礦物質及亞硝酸清除能力等,未來可躍升及行銷國際市場。但番石榴果實於田間栽培管理期間、果實採收後至櫥架販售期間易有病害的發生,如瘡痂病、炭疽病、黑星病等。臺灣內外銷通路之擴展,需配合良好的農產品採後保鮮技術,降低貯運及販售期間之貯藏病害的發生。同時,在安全農產品之規範下,安全抑菌資材的開發與應用有其必要性。藉由本計畫篩選適合之安全抑菌資材,實際應用於番石榴外銷加拿大之貯運流程降低貯藏病害之發生。 鳳梨外銷新式包裝及品質改善         為改善外銷鳳梨到貨後常見因貯運期間溫度控制不良造成之果心褐化及果實劣變等問題,擬利用果實上蠟處理延緩果心褐化之寒害徵狀發生,並利用導入果品包裝後之壓差預冷,改善貨櫃內果實溫度之均一性。本年度將試驗不同廠牌之液蠟處理應用於台農17號鳳梨,探討對於果實模擬貯運後之外觀品質及寒害發生率之影響;並探討上蠟處理之鳳梨於7天或14天航程之適當貯運溫度,以及品種間之差異性,期能提供產業投資鳳梨水洗上蠟設備、上蠟處理資材施用方法建立、外銷品種選擇與貯運條件設定之相關資訊。Integrating field management and post-harvest packaging technology to improve storage and transportation of red-fleshed dragon fruit 100 ppm CPPU was treated on the day of summer pitaya flowering, and PE bags containing non-pores, two 0.6 cm diameter holes, 10 diameters of 0.2 cm holes of packaging and naked fruits were four kinds treatment after harvesting. To find the preharvest CPPU and post-harvest packaging most beneficial the combination for delaying yellowing of bracts of pitaya during storage. Improvement of Postharvest Handling, Storage and Marketing Cold-chain Technologies for Avocado Fruits. Improvement of Postharvest Handling, Storage and Marketing Cold-chain Technologies for Avocado Fruits.          The production and market value of avocados in Taiwan have been increasing very rapidly in recent years. However, the postharvest handling technologies needed for this fruit has been lacking, therefore causing large volumes of losses in the marketing chain. The most serious problems are abnormal ripening process which lower the fruit quality and quick fruit breakdown at the retail stands which causes complete loss of the produce. The objectives of this project include reducing postharvest losses while upgrading the quality of this fruit. There are four work plans as following: (1) To establish maturity and quality standards, which include oil content besides other criteria, for major varieties and to develop sorting procedures in the packing houses. (2) To conduct more laboratory experiments to fine out the relationships between the postharvest temperature control at different times and the length of shelf life and final quality of the fruit. (3) To develop artificial methods to induce fruit ripening or to delay ripening in order to regulate supply and demand balance. (4) To develop cold-chain procedures starting from production sites to retailers or chain stores to maximize the benefits of our research findings. Whenever a desirable new research result is obtained, it will be tested at a cooperative grower, packer, whole seller, or retailer. Finally, the pieces of new findings will be chained to benefit the industry. Innovation and application of portable precooling modelization facility There are many small and medium-sized farmers in Taiwan. After harvesting, there was within high field heat of fruits and vegetables. There is no shading device when stacked in field, or the vehicle without shading before or when it transported to packing house. Breathing heat also continues to be produced, which inflenced fruit/vegetable temperature drop slowly when stored in refrigrator and transported. Products dehydration or over maturity were dramatic impacts, so it is urgent to sort out a solution. In addition, due to the generally small cultivation area (within one hectare) of Taiwanese farmers, it is difficult to introduce large-scale facility for operation. The pre-cooling facility  removed field heat that is bound to develop tiny size scale is necessary. The effect of removing field heat or pre-cooling is necessary, too. Using pre- and post- harvest treatment to reduce incidences of fruit cracking and diseases of cherry tomato during cold-chain transportation Because there are not many studies on the diseases of cherry tomato during storage and transportation in Taiwan, this proposal will study the topic to ensure the fruit quality of cherry tomato in export and transportation. Firstly, the causes of the disease and the fruit cracking of cherry tomato should be confirmed. Secondly, the suitable pre-harvesting treatment of cherry tomato should be established for planting cherry tomato, including fertilization, water and disease control. Third, optimal post-harvest processing should be set up, including surface disinfection and essential oil fumigation, etc. Finally, the pre- and post- harvest treatment of processing could be integrated to reduce the incidence of cracking and diseases in storage and transportation, and the integration technology could be applied to the fields for exportation. Integrating field to post-harvest technology to prevent postharvest diseases during cold chain of pitaya and Indian jujube Red dragon fruit and Indian jujube are important tropical economic fruit trees in Taiwan. During the cold chain process, fruits often suffer from "storage diseases during storage period" caused by pathogens such as brown spot disease, anthracnose, fruit rot and wet rot. As a result, fruits are not easy to store and transport. At present, post-harvest treatment is mostly used as a control method, however, pre-cooling may not be accurate, or although pre-cooling treatment can achieve fruit preservation, it is not enough to completely prevent the occurrence of cold-resistant pathogens. In terms of red dragon fruit, through early research, it was determined that most of the diseases during storage were infected by the field, and it is difficult to significantly reduce the incidence of the disease only through post-harvest treatment. However, the research team has initially developed a single-point control technology for prevention and control, but lacks integration The testing of various technologies also lacks field evidence to cope with the changing factors in the field. This plan is expected to cooperate with 1 Red Dragon Fruit Production and Marketing Class and 1 Green Fruit Cooperative, through individual establishment of field and post-harvest disease prevention and management modes (including field bagging with drugs, application of hypochlorous water on the eve of harvest, test immersion) High-safety medicines, differential pressure pre-cooling, use of edible coating materials and non-pesticide control materials, etc.), counseling farmers to prevent and control from the field. The 2 red dragon fruit fields conservatively estimate that the disease losses during the cold chain period will be large throughout the year. The control measures proposed in this plan are expected to reduce the incidence of 50-60% and increase annual revenue by at least 1 million. As for Indian jujube, there is currently no basic research on diseases during storage, and pathogenic bacteria and their ecological survey data have not yet been established. Research data are urgently needed for further application. The plan is to investigate and adjust the chemical chain and non-pesticide control materials, post-harvest materials processing, and improve the storage site process by investigating the disease phase and ecological survey of the cold chain process, and based on this. The operating mode can reduce the incidence of disease. Based on the above, the plan is to gradually measure a series of "field-to-harvest integrated management technology" in the field. The periodical results can be used by industrial service groups to reduce the incidence of disease in the short term to reduce losses; in the long term Because the disease during storage often develops during transportation, the quality of the goods delivered by the consumer or the country of export and the shelf is not good, which will affect the next ordering intention. Through the development of this technology, the incidence can be reduced and the consumer or export will be indirectly strengthened. China has confidence in Taiwan ’s red dragon fruit and Indian dates, increasing its willingness to buy again, and expanding domestic and overseas markets for Taiwan ’s agricultural products. Recycling wood material derivatives to develop new state packaging cold chain materials Screening natural plant extracts that have antibacterial microbial effects on the spoilage and deterioration of vegetables and fruits. Many plants and their extracts have certain antiseptic and bacteriostatic effects. Using these natural plant-based antiseptic and bacteriostatic agents may prevent food spoilage and play a role in keeping fresh. It also has the functions of anti-oxidation and disease prevention. The extracted components from the extracted plants are used to make natural fruit and vegetable preservatives, and the extracted components with antibacterial and non-cytotoxicity are screened to reduce the problems of pineapples ’decay and mold incision during shipping. The use of antibacterial substances and wood microfibers for the transportation and storage of fresh-keeping packaging cartons and bags for fruit and vegetable renewal and research and development. The physical and chemical methods are used to prepare wood microfiber materials. In terms of fresh-keeping packaging carton bags, the strength and antibacterial properties of the fresh-keeping packaging carton bags are increased to achieve the fresh-keeping effect of fruits and vegetables during transportation and storage, and at the same time to achieve the purpose of environmental friendliness. Evaluate the optimal combination of ethylene adsorption for different wood porous recycled carbon materials and process parameters. Develop a wood porous recycled carbon material process, supplement the specific surface area to evaluate the surface area performance of the porous material, and develop the monocotyledonous plant porosity. The added value of carbon materials used to slow down the aging process of fruits. Wood porous circulating carbon materials use thermal cracking to generate pores inside the material and increase its surface area to produce molecular sieve-like functions. It can adsorb plant hormones such as ethylene to promote fruit ripening Gas so that the goal of extending the shelf life of fruits and vegetables can be achieved. Carbonization is a multi-variable and subtle process. Materials, heating procedures, shielding gas, activation, and other factors will affect the final yield and adsorption performance of carbonization. The relevant results of the development process can be used for reference in the preservation of fruits and vegetables and the export storage and transportation industry. Improvement of Cold Chain Equipment for Precooling and Storage of Vegetables in the Suburbs The main purpose of this plan is to develop new cold chain equipment for precooling and storage of vegetables in refrigerators, which can increase the cooling rate of vegetables, reduce the rate of vegetable loss compared to traditional air cooling methods, regulate the production and sales of vegetables and fruits, and stabilize the income of farmers. Developed GPS + temperature and humidity sensor to provide farmers with the ability to track the temperature change and location distance of vegetables during transportation.   Develop the solution to postharvest disease of guava (Psidium guajava) with non-toxic antibacterial/antifungal materials Guava can be produced on an annual basis. It is a fruit with export potential. It is rich in nutritional value and rich in vitamin C, minerals, and nitrite removal capacity. However, guava fruits are susceptible to diseases such as scab, anthracnose, and melanosis during the field cultivation and management period, after the fruit is harvested and sold on the shelf. The expansion of domestic and foreign sales channels in Taiwan needs to cooperate with good post-harvest preservation technology of agricultural products to reduce the occurrence of storage diseases during storage and transportation and sales. At the same time, under the norms of safe agricultural products, the development and application of safe bacteriostatic materials are necessary. Through this project, suitable safe bacteriostatic materials are screened and applied to the storage and transportation process of guava for export to Canada to reduce the occurrence of storage diseases. New Packaging and Quality Improvement of Pineapple for Export     To ameliorate the problem of internal browning and quality deterioration of pineapple fruit arriving to export destination caused by poor temperature control during storage and transportation. In this research, we planned to use waxing treatment to ease internal browning, the syndrome of chilling injury of pineapple fruit, and use force air cooling after fruit packaging to improve the uniformity of fruit temperature in the container. Different brand of liquid wax will be example on pineapple ‘Tainung No. 17’ this year, to discuss the difference of their effect on fruit appearance quality and incidence of chilling injury after simulated storage and transportation. Besides, the suitable temperature setting for 7 or 14 days transportation of waxed pineapple and the difference among cultivars will be researched as well. We expect to provide relevant information to the industry, to be a reference for pineapple washing and waxing equipment investment, waxing material application method development, and export pineapple cultivar selection and environmental conditions setting for storage and transportation.
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