修剪、套袋及網室栽培與低溫貯藏前熱處理對番石榴品質之影響

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論文名稱: 修剪、套袋及網室栽培與低溫貯藏前熱處理對番石榴品質之影響
研究生姓名: 蔡宜君
指導教授姓名: 林慧玲
出版年: 2011
學校名稱: 國立中興大學
系所名稱: 園藝學系所
關鍵字: 修剪;套袋;低溫貯藏;番石榴;pruning;bagging;low temperature storage;guava
摘要: 本試驗探討提升番石榴夏季果實品質之方法,包括利用控稍、網室栽培、修剪方法及不同套袋材質等方式,結果顯示,葉面噴氯化膽鹼76天後枝條生長速率減緩,果實硬度顯著高於對照組。網室內外栽培配合不同修剪程度處理;枝條開花數以弱剪處理顯著高於強剪,果實大小、重量及品質則以強剪顯著高於弱剪,芽長、最終枝條開花百分率,網室栽培顯著高於露地栽培。而不同套袋材質內部溫度,以PE袋加舒果網處理白天溫度較高。果長、果寬、果重以PE袋加舒果網顯著高於白色紙袋及雙層褐色牛皮紙袋,硬度、可溶性固形物以白色紙袋、雙層褐色牛皮紙較PE袋加舒果網套袋高。‘帝王’番石榴不同月份採收,果實經低溫貯藏並於室溫下3天,以3月、6月、7月、11月、12月份採收果實螢光值最高,9月螢光值最低,以3月、11月、12月採收果實品質最佳,9月最差,和螢光值變化趨勢相近。‘珍珠’番石榴不同月採收果實在低溫貯藏並3天回溫後,以5月、10月、12月採收果實螢光值最高,以4月、8月、9月採收果實螢光值最低,以11月採收果實品質最佳,8月、9月採收品質最差。‘帝王’冬季果實,低溫貯藏前55℃熱風處理與對照組品質相近,而38℃熱風2天及3天、42℃熱風2天,在低溫貯藏並回溫後Fv/Fm值較其他處理低,在外觀褐化情形也較嚴重。‘珍珠’冬季果實低溫貯藏前熱風處理也與帝王結果相似,熱風對冬季番石榴果實低溫貯運品質與對照組差異不大。夏季‘帝王’番石榴經熱風處理再經1℃低溫冷藏,雖增加失重,但55℃熱風2小時處理,低溫冷藏後回溫恢復果實較高之Fv/Fm值;‘珍珠’番石榴55℃熱風2、4小時、38℃熱風1天,可減輕寒害症狀。The objective of these experiments was to find the best conditions by which to increase the quality and storage life of guava fruit harvested in the summer. “Jen-Ju” guava trees were kept under two field conditions: open field and net housing. Choline chloride and bagging experiments were conducted on the open field trees. Choline chloride was applied to “Jen-Ju” cultivars and results were examined 76 days later. Choline chloride was able to inhibit the growth of the shoots and the firmness of the fruit from the treated trees was higher than that of the untreated. “Jen-Ju” was bagged with PE + EPNS (expanded polystyrene net sleeve), white paper, and brown paper bag. Fruit bagged with PE+EPNS, had higher temperatures than those in the white paper and the brown paper bags. The size and weight of the fruit bagged with PE+EPNS was greater than that of the other two. Fruit firmness and total soluble sugar value were found to be the highest in fruit bagged in the brown paper bags. The pruning experiments (light, medium, and heavy pruning of tree shoots) were done performed on both open field and net housed trees. The results were similar although the trees in the net house had a higher percentage of blooms than the ones in the open field. Light pruning allowed more flowers to bloom than did the heavy pruning; however, heavily pruned trees produced fruit larger in size and weight. The fruit of two guava cultivars, “Jen-Ju” and “Di-Wan”, were used for the storage experiments. Guava was harvested every month and stored at low temperatures. It underwent storage at/low temperature storage of 1oC for 14 days, followed by 5oC for 7 days, and finally kept at room temperature for 3 days . The results from the cultivars were similar. The “Di-Wan” harvested in March, June, July, November, and December had higher Fv/Fm values while that of fruit harvested in September had the lowest values. The quality of fruit harvested in March, November, and December was the best while that in September was the worst. “Jen-Ju” fruit harvested in November was the best, while that in August and September was the worst. Follow up experiments were performed on fruit harvested in summer (September) and winter (December and January). Fruit harvested in September, December and January were further used in low temperature storage experiments. To prevent chilling injury during low temperature storage, the fruit was treated with hot air at 55oC for 2, 4 hours or 38oC for 2, 3 days or 42oC for 2 days before undergoing low temperature storage. Results were that summer fruit (September) pretreated at 38 and 42oC had the lowest Fv/Fm values and the most fruit peel browning while those pretreated at 55oC had a higher Fv/Fm value and less fruit chilling injury. There was little difference between the treated and untreated winter fruit (harvested in December and January).
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