低溫及包裝方式對\’\’津翠\’\’及\’\’彩虹\’\’番石榴貯藏品質之影響

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論文名稱: 低溫及包裝方式對\'\'津翠\'\'及\'\'彩虹\'\'番石榴貯藏品質之影響
研究生姓名: 高啓雰
指導教授姓名: 林慧玲
出版年: 2019
學校名稱: 國立中興大學
系所名稱: 園藝學系所
關鍵字: 番石榴;可食用膜;PE袋;低溫貯藏;Guava;Edibble coating;PE packaging;Low temperature storage
摘要: 為解決番石榴夏季品質普遍不佳之產業問題,本試驗嘗試探討低溫及包裝對‘津翠’及‘彩虹’番石榴貯藏品質之影響,結果顯示‘津翠’番石榴低溫貯運能力並不劣於‘珍珠’,兩品種果實硬度及可滴定酸隨貯藏時間緩慢下降,而‘津翠’之可溶性固形物及抗壞血酸含量均高於‘珍珠’且在貯藏期間變化不大。1℃貯藏21天並回溫後‘津翠’及‘珍珠’果實葉綠素螢光值回升幅度均下降,而28天後1℃及2℃之‘珍珠’均已發生寒害,然‘津翠’於2℃及5℃貯藏28天並回溫後離子滲漏率顯著最低且葉綠素螢光值仍為持0.7以上,且官能品評仍維持4.5的高分,說明‘津翠’番石榴對低溫的忍耐程度較‘珍珠’佳,可耐長時間貯運,具有外銷潛力。 同時為探討可食用膜促進番石榴夏季果實貯運能力之潛力,以0.2 %、0.5 %及1 %脂肪酸蔗糖酯披膜處理‘津翠’及‘珍珠’番石榴夏季果實並模擬低溫貯藏及1℃ 21天及2℃ 28天之長程貯運,不同濃度對果實內部品質無明顯影響,但果實在貯藏階段發生無氧呼吸,其代謝物質影響果實外觀失去商品價值;另以0.5 %及1 %甲殼素披膜並貯藏於與脂肪酸蔗糖酯相同條件下,亦有類似無氧呼吸的情形發生,推測是濃度未落於最適範圍及過度包裝所導致,需進一步進行濃度測試;此外比較不同厚度PE袋包裝對‘津翠’貯藏品質之影響結果發現,0.02 mm、0.03 mm、0.04 mm及0.08 mm對果實失重率及果實硬度、可溶性固形物、可滴定酸及抗壞血酸並無顯著影響,最終考量PE袋成本認為0.02 mm較適合作為‘津翠’貯藏時包裝用。 為推廣多元番石榴品種及分散品種過度集中之產業問題,探討‘彩虹’番石榴外銷潛力,‘彩虹’番石榴因其富含類胡蘿蔔素及茄紅素之紅色果肉受部分消費者喜愛,本試驗依果皮顏色判定之6分熟及8分熟果實進行模擬貯運加拿大之貯運試驗,並於20℃回溫1至3天,結果顯示果實於28天之2℃環境下已有果實點狀軟化的情形,回溫1天後仍維持70%可售率但部分果實出現炭疽症狀,然隨著室溫回溫時間拉長,3天後兩種成熟度果實果皮點狀炭疽布滿果實表面,已然失去商品價值,因此認為本品種櫥架販售仍需維持低溫,以確保品質。To solve the problem of low storage quarity of guava in summer season.The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of low temperature and different packaging on the storage quality of ''Sweet Green'' and ''Rainbow'' guava. The results show that the storage capability of ‘Sweet Green’ was comparable to that of ‘Jen Ju’. Upon low temperature storage, while the fruit firmness and total titratable acid content decreased slowly in both varieties, the total soluble solid and ascorbic acid content of ‘Sweet Green’ were higher than ‘Jen Ju’. The chlorophyll fluorescence of both varieties dropped after storage at 1℃ for 21 days, but the value reversed mildly after return to 20℃ for 3 days. Although storage at 1℃ and 2℃ for 28 days could lead to chilling injury in both ‘Jen Ju’ and ‘Sweet Green’ fruits, ‘Sweet Green’ stored at 2℃ and 5℃ for 28 days maintained a desirable the chlorophyll fluorescence of at above 0.7, and showed the lowest ion leakage percentage. In addition, the organoleptic qualities test of ‘Sweet Green’ remained 4.5 point . The results above suggested that ‘Sweet Green’ is more tolerant to low temperature storage, which implicating export potential with long-term transportation. To evaluate the potential of edible coating to improve guava storage ability in summer, 0.2 %, 0.5 %, and 1 % of Sucrose fatty acid ester and 0.5 % and1 % of chitosan were used in the present study. After 14 days storage at 1℃ for for quarantine and long-term storage at 1 °C for 21 days and 2°C for 28 days, respectively, no significant differences was found between each group. Moreover, coating treatments induced anaerobic respiration during storage and the subsequent metabolites impaired the appearance of the guava resulting in loss of the commercial value. Taken together, the aforementioned concentrations of the coating materials may not besuitable for both ''Jen Ju'' and ''Sweet Green'', further studies are required to determine the optimal concentration for storage of guava. We also applied PE packages at 0.02 mm, 0.03 mm, 0.04 mm, and 0.08 mm for coating to examine the effect of different thicknesses of PE packages on the fruit quality of ‘Sweet Green’. The result demonstrated that the different thicknesses had no impact on weight loss, firmness, total soluble solids, total titratable acid, and ascorbic acid content. Regarding the financial cost, the favorable thickness of PE bags for the packaging of ''Sweet Green'' is 0.02 mm under 5°C storage. To promote multiple varity choices,''Rainbow'' guava is favored by some consumers for its red color and rich in carotenoids and lycopene. In this test, a 6-matured and 8-matured ''Rainbow'' was stored at 2°C for 28 days followed by storage at 20°C for 1 to 3 days to simulate transportation to Canada. The results showed that the fruit had punctiform softening at 2°C for 28 days. After 1 day of transport to 20°C, while some fruits appeared anthrax symptoms, most of them were able to maintain 70% salability, but after 3 days transferring to 20℃,both maturity had already lost its commercial value.It was considered that this varieties had to keeping cooling condition to maintain the quality.
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