亞熱帶果樹品種改良與栽培技術改進及採後處理應用(第3年/全程6年)

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計畫名稱: 亞熱帶果樹品種改良與栽培技術改進及採後處理應用(第3年/全程6年)
計畫主持人: 徐信次
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 96農科-4.2.2-農-C4(z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 農委會農業試驗所嘉義分所
全程計畫年: 2007
關鍵字:
摘要: 一、柑橘:經由雜交育種與新品種區域試驗選拔具少籽、不同產期、耐潰瘍病或高品質等特性之新品種。以頂梢嫁接消除重要系統性病原,建立健康原種園。砧木試驗,探討各砧木對主要柑橘品種生長、產量與品質之差異,做為栽培選用之依據。新興品種試驗,調查植株生育、果實品質及栽培農民之反應資料,評估各品種的地區適應性差異。優質安全生產體系建構,椪柑水分管理試驗,探討果實生長後期水分管理對果實品質與植株生育之影響。進行綜合管理試驗,以較低毒化學藥劑及非化學藥劑防治,與現有防治方法比較,探討主要柑橘病蟲害之防治效果。研發橙皮蜜餞製造技術,並進行技術移轉。調查茂谷柑果園在自然環境下,土壤含水量變化與裂果之關係。研發果實加工產品。 二、鳳梨:育種選拔植株小,葉緣無剌,果實適中,糖酸比高,適於鮮食品種。為了提高產業之競爭力,規劃各地區各品種的最適合生產季節,建立各品種的栽培管理模式,生產高品質果品,以利內外銷市場之拓展。改善鮮食鳳梨貯運品質,延長貯運櫥架壽命,以提昇外銷競爭力,並研發適合鳳梨外銷處理流程之採收後處理機械。果實生理障礙之研究,探討鮮食鳳梨台農十七號在不同產區之天然裂梗率、台農十三號的斷心發生率。 三.荔枝:荔枝育種目標為不同產期、高品質、豐產穩產,以分散產期。選育途徑為雜交育種及自然變異選拔。以人為控制雜交授粉或利用不同品種嫁接同一植株的多交方式培育雜交種子,以供選種。荔枝產期調節及採收後處理之調查,預期將玉荷包品種之產期分散於5-7月。空、海運外銷荔枝採後處理作業流程之研究,改變現行荔枝採收後零亂的處理作業,成為前後緊密配合的一貫流程,協助產業拓展,確保外銷荔枝的到貨品質。 四、龍眼育種:選育具不同產期、高產穩產及高品質不易退甘之之品種,實施方法為,蒐集優良品種系進行人工雜交,或自然授粉實生株系之選拔。 五、安石榴育種:四個經選拔之安石榴大果品系,定植於嘉義分所果園,本年度主要探討1、果實生長及發育之調查。2、果實物理及化學性之分析。3、控制果實數之品質及產量之調查。4、實生苗種植、培育及選拔。 六、酪梨:育成適合台灣地區栽培之不同成熟期,高品質,高油分之接穗品種及耐根腐病砧木品種。主要方法為引種、地區選種與實生選種。安全優質酪梨生產體系之建立,調查耐炭疽病及病蒂腐病品系,進行炭疽病及蒂腐病藥劑篩選,並研究酪梨採後貯運技術,以減少果實貯運病害、提高品質。 七、降低天然災害對鳳梨及柑橘損失之研究:調查柑橘及鳳梨天然災害種類及其損害率。1. Citrus Cultivar improvement was conducted through crossbreeding and regional trials of newly-introduced cultivars. The objectives of crossbreeding included fewer seed, different mature seasons, better quality, larger fruit size or resistant to citrus canker. Regional trial field for introduced cultivars was planted in main production areas, and investigated their environment adaptation, fruit quality and grower's responses. The rootstock trials investigate the influences of rootstocks on horticultural characteristics of major citrus scion cultivars in Taiwan. Healthy stocks of citrus germplasm are produced by shoot-tip grafting, and the budwoods indexed specific-pathogen free will release to propagate foundation trees and scion trees. To establish a safety system for citrus production, pests and diseases will be controlled by use of low toxic or non-chemical materials. This project also studies the physiological disorder of citrus and processing technology of orange confiture. Effect of water control prior to harvest on fruits quality and flowering in the following year of 'Ponkan' trees was investigated to enhance fruit quality and production. 2. Pineapple The goal of breeding is selection of fresh cultivar with characters of small plant size, smooth leaf margin, medium fruit size, higher sugar content and better fruit quality. Seeds obtained by controlled pollination. Promising hybrids were selected through individual selection, clonal comparison and various regional trials comparing with main cultivars. To increase the marketing competition, studies combing improvement of cultural practices, regional adaptation of various cultivars, postharvest handling technology and transportation temperature was conducted. Cultural practice improvement also studied the fruit physiological disorders of pineapple. 3. Litchi In order to develop varieties with various mature seasons, better quality (large and seedless fruit), high and stable yield, the litchi breeding program was conducted through hybridization and selection. Both controlled and open pollination methods are used. Promising hybrids will be compared with commercial cultivars. To extend harvest period from one month at present time to three month, experiments will be conducted in four main production areas. Soil and leaf elements analysis will be carried out prior to blooming for nutrient management. Improvement on technology of postharvest handling of Litchi fruits, different treatments of grading, packaging, precooling, and transportation temperature on fruit decay and on fruit quality changes will be studied. 4. Longan The longan breeding program took the following steps, germplasm collections, controlled hybridization, selection and regional trials of promising lines. 5. Pomegranate breeding Four selected pomegranate clones were investigated on their fruit growth and development, main nutrients content and effects of fruit load on fruit yield and quality. 6. Avocado The aim of avocado breeding is to obtain new cultivars with higher fruit quality (good flavor and high crude fat content) and local environment adaptation through selection of newly-introduced cultivars and open-pollinated seedlings. Root rot-tolerant seedling will be evaluated for rootstock. Effects of different postharvest treatments on fruit decay control and fruit quality will be studied. 7. Studies on reducing the loss of pineapple and citrus caused by natural hazards. This project investigates the damage rate caused by natural hazards on pineapple and citrus.
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