‘三寶柑’及‘不知火’柑桔果實生育及貯藏之研究

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論文名稱: ‘三寶柑’及‘不知火’柑桔果實生育及貯藏之研究
研究生姓名: 蔡尚翰
指導教授姓名: 李堂察;呂明雄
出版年: 2007
學校名稱: 國立嘉義大學
系所名稱: 園藝學系研究所
關鍵字: 柑桔;果實生育;貯藏
摘要: 本試驗主要研究‘三寶柑’及‘不知火’果實之生育,並研究不同的貯藏溫度及貯藏時間對果實品質之影響。由縱橫徑調查結果顯示生育曲線皆呈單S型變化。總可溶性固形物含量方面,‘三寶柑’果實總可溶性固形物含量於花後27週後隨生育日數而逐漸上升,至採收期為止,總可溶性固形物含量為10°Brix;‘不知火’亦隨生育日數增加而穩定上升。‘三寶柑’於花後19週時已可觀察到可滴定酸含量已經伴隨生育日數增加而下降,‘不知火’之可滴定酸含量於花後25週前為快速下降期,隨後趨緩,採收時可滴定酸含量分別為0.7%及1.0%。果皮a*/b*隨果實生育日數而上升,h°及葉綠素則隨果實生育日數而下降,採收時果皮外觀‘三寶柑’呈現黃色,‘不知火’為黃橙色。‘三寶柑’最適採收期應為盛花後36-39週之間,‘不知火’則有待進ㄧ步研究。 貯藏期間‘三寶柑’及‘不知火’之總可溶性固形物含量於貯藏初期會先上升,而後隨貯藏週數增加而下降,‘不知火’以5℃貯藏4週時總可溶性固形物含量為14.2°Brix最高,‘三寶柑’則以模擬通風貯藏8週總可溶性固形物含量為11.0°Brix最高。兩品種可滴定酸含量皆隨果實貯藏週數而下降,‘三寶柑’以12.5℃貯藏者下降最快,‘不知火’個貯藏溫度間差異不明顯。‘三寶柑’以12.5℃貯藏12週後糖酸比快速上升,明顯高於5℃及模擬通風貯藏者,‘不知火’以12,5℃貯藏20週後糖酸比才會快速上升。‘三寶柑’以5℃貯藏果皮會有較低的h°,為深黃色,‘不知火’則以12.5℃貯藏果皮會有較低的h°,果實呈現橙色。‘不知火’腐爛率隨貯藏時間延長而上升,以模擬通風貯藏者最高,但於5℃下貯藏,會產生寒害。 ‘三寶柑’果實於5℃下貯藏12週後腐爛率會快速上升,於12.5℃貯藏亦可觀察到寒害之現象;兩品種於貯藏前期,皆以5℃貯藏會有較佳的綠蒂率,12.5℃次之;失重率方面兩品種皆以模擬通風貯藏者最高,其餘差異不顯著。The effect of fruits growth and development aspect of ‘Sanbokan’and ‘Shiranui’citrus fruits were investigated in this test. In addition to investigated the effect of fruit quality in different storage temperature and time. The results was shown that the ‘Sanbokan’ and ‘Shiranui’fruit grown pattern appeated a single sigmoid curve based on fruit diameter. The soluble solid content of ‘Sanbokan’in 27 week after full bloom start to increased gradually with development date, the soluble solid content was 10°Brix at harvest time. It also increased steady with development date of ‘Shiranui’fruit. The titratable acid of ‘Sanbokan’fruit was decrease with development date at 19 week after full bloom. The titiatable acid content of ‘Shiranui’ was decrease rapidly before 25 week, then the curve shown slowing down. When harvest time, the titrable acid content were 0.7% and 1.0%, respectively. ‘Sanbokan’ percentage of juice content was start increase gradually after 19 week after full bloom, until 27 week after full bloom, the decline slowing. Between 29 to 38 weeks after full bloom of ‘Shiranui’, the percentage of juice content at 50.9-51.6%, no apparent change. Peel a*/b* was increase with development date, h° and chlorophyll were decrease with development date. When harvest time, the appearance of fruit was yellow as ‘Sanbokan’and yellow-orange as ‘Shiranui’. ‘Sanbokan’ optimal harvest period should between 36-39 weeks after full bloom; it needs ulterior research of ‘Shiranui’. During storage, ‘Sanbokan’ and ‘Shiranui’fruits total soluble solid content are increase in the primary period then decrease with storage time. Maxmium total soluble solid content is storage at 5℃ for 4weeks of ‘Shiranui’and simulated ventilation storage for 8weeks of ‘Sanbokan’,14.2°Brix and 11.0°Brix respectively. Titratble acid content decreases with storage time of both varieties, ‘Sanbokan’ storage at 5℃ decrease the most, and the variation is not obvious at differert storage temperature of ‘Shiranui’. ‘Sanbokan’storage in 12.5℃ after 12 week TSS/TA ratio increase rapid, significantly higher than 5 ℃ and simulation ventilation storage. ‘Shiranui’storage in 12.5℃until after 24 weeks, TSS/TA ratio start increase more rapid. ‘Sanbokan’and ‘Shiranui’ storage in 5℃ and 12.5℃ the h° were lower, peel color was deep yellow and orange, respectively. Decay percentage of ‘Shiranui’ was increase with storage time, the highest was simulated ventilation storage, storage in 5℃ will be chilling injury, and the optimum storage temperature is 12.5℃. ‘Sanbokan’storage in 5℃ for 12 week, the decay percentage was increase rapidly, it due to chilling injury. Both varieties storage in 5℃ get better green button percentage, follow by 12.5℃. The highest weight loss percentage of two varieties all by simulated ventilation storage, others were no significant.
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